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How to term on post, Write a Cover Letter, According to Great Artists. For starters, boast about your fortress-destroying skills. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. Why Did the Islamic State Claim the Las Vegas Shooting? Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor With a Putin Ally? Selling yourself often feels like a grotesque act. So job applicants’ cover letters seem unlikely to contain much great prose.
Instead, we tend to fill the page with false notes and empty phrases. Research. (“I believe my skills make me the ideal candidate, and I would appreciate your consideration…”) But it doesn’t have to be that way. On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. When a 30-something Leonardo da Vinci sought work in the court of the article needed, duke of Milan in the 1480s, he wrote a short, bulleted list of on post disorder, ten skills that would have been sure to catch the eye of any Renaissance-era ruler: he could design portable, indestructible bridges; build unassailable vehicles; destroy most fortresses; and so on. (He also could “execute sculpture in marble, bronze and clay,” and wasn’t so bad with a paintbrush, either.) His letter was brisk, convincing, and length of personal statement a pleasure to read. Other fine examples of the form can be found in the cover letters of Eudora Welty and Hunter S. Papers Traumatic Disorder. Thompson, among other great minds. Quartz distilled their wisdom into a rough guide to cover-letting writing. It’s worth noting that these letters aren’t templates—it would be pointless to copy correspondence that’s so individual. They’re here as prods, reminders that it’s possible to make a necessity of business a bit less of a drag to write and read. All but one of the letters mentioned here come from the recently published book Letters of Note: An Eclectic Correspondence Deserving of a Wider Audience , an anthology of atlantis rediscovered, Shaun Usher’s wonderful blog of the same name.
It’s well worth picking up. Eudora Welty (AP Photo) The trouble with most cover letters is that they sound canned. Using boilerplate formalities won’t make you sound serious; it will just make it harder to on post traumatic disorder, tell one cover letter from another. Use your personality, even if it means channeling your anxieties about the job you hope to essay, get. For instance, Eudora Welty opened with a bit of disarming humor when she applied for a job at The New Yorker in 1933 as an papers stress disorder, unknown 23-year-old writer with no experience: I suppose you’d be more interested in atlantis rediscovered, even a sleight-o’-hand trick than you’d be in an application for a position with your magazine, but as usual you can’t have the thing you want most.
And she closes with a self-deprecating joke and term papers on post traumatic stress an amazing pun: There is no telling where I may apply, if you turn me down; I realize this will not phase you, but consider my other alternative: the U of life olaudah equiano, N.C. offers for $12.00 to let me dance in Vachel Lindsay’s Congo. I congo on. Both you and the person reading your application know that you’re engaged in a dull little ritual. Anything to break up that monotony is likely to get you noticed. Leonardo da Vinci (Francois Lenoir/Reuters) Da Vinci’s letter to the ruler of Milan, Ludovico Sforza, overwhelms the reader’s defenses with details of his war-waging abilities, from constructing secret subterranean passageways to term on post stress, designing “very beautiful” cannons and catapults: 1. I have plans for rediscovered very light, strong and easily portable bridges with which to pursue and, on some occasions, flee the enemy, and stress disorder others, sturdy and indestructible either by fire or in battle, easy and convenient to lift and place in position.
Also means of burning and finn destroying those of the enemy. 4. I have also types of cannon, most convenient and easily portable, with which to hurl small stones almost like a hail-storm; and term traumatic the smoke from the cannon will instil a great fear in the enemy on account of the of personal statement, grave damage and confusion. Welty’s talents were less martial but equally impressive: I recently coined a general word for term papers on post stress Matisse’s pictures after seeing his latest at the Marie Harriman: concubineapple. That shows you how my mind works—quick, and away from the paper on genetic algorithm, point. It’s one thing to say you can do the on post stress, job; quite another to show it. Consequentialism Essay. In 1934, Robert Pirosh was a young copywriter who wanted to break into Hollywood. The brief cover letter he sent to directors vouches for his abilities better than a lengthy CV could: I like words.
I like fat buttery words, such as ooze, turpitude, glutinous, toady. I like solemn, angular, creaky words, such as straitlaced, cantankerous, pecunious, valedictory. Papers Stress Disorder. I like spurious, black-is-white words, such as mortician, liquidate, tonsorial, demi-monde. And so on consequentialism essay, for another 100 or so peregrinating, bravura, gurgling words. Pirosh was hired as a junior writer for MGM, where he wrote for the Marx brothers and won an Academy award for Battleground . Making our lives and experiences intelligible to others is a hard task.
But if you can sustain a narrative over the course of a few paragraphs, you’ll seem like a person, instead of term papers traumatic, a faceless email. Consequentialism. When Tim Schafer applied to be a programmer and papers traumatic stress disorder designer at Lucasfilm in 1989, his cover letter came in the form of a text adventure game. Your quest for equiano essays the ideal career begins, logically enough, at the Ideal Career Center. Term Stress Disorder. Upon entering, you see a helpful looking woman sitting behind a desk. She smiles and says, “May I help you?” SAY YES I NEED A JOB. Things ended well for consequentialism the game’s character (“As you become personally fulfilled, your score reaches 100, and this quest comes to an end”) and for Schafer too, who went on to design a string of term traumatic disorder, popular video games for Lucasfilm and his own company, Double Fine Productions. Why couch your enthusiasm in consequentialism essay, stilted, formal phrasing? You want this job.
So say it, like Welty does: “How I would like to work for you!” Be Clear About What You Want, and Don’t Want. Hunter S. Thomopson (Frank Martin/AP) In his 1958 cover letter to the Vancouver Sun , a 21-year-old Hunter S. Thompson wasn’t shy about broadcasting his abilities—”I can write everything from term papers on post stress, warmongering propaganda to learned book reviews,” he wrote. But he also detailed battles with his previous boss (“It was as if the Marquis de Sade had suddenly found himself working for Billy Graham”). He explained his reasoning:
I stepped into a dung-hole the last time I took a job with a paper I didn’t know anything about (see enclosed clippings) and atlantis I’m not quite ready to term papers, go charging up another blind alley…. And don’t think that my arrogance is unintentional: it’s just that I’d rather offend you now than after I started working for you. Thompson’s cover letter might not seem like one to emulate. (He didn’t get the job.) But his blunt tone served a good purpose: It likely saved him from a workplace he would have hated, and olaudah essays helped lead him to jobs that were more suitable to his interests and talents. As he wrote, “I would rather be on traumatic stress, the dole than work for a paper I was ashamed of.” A Letter Is a Great First Step, but Try to Set Up a Face-to-Face Meeting. After da Vinci listed everything he could do to equiano, elegantly crush an traumatic stress disorder, enemy, he offered to show his skills in person, just in case his descriptions weren’t convincing: And if any of the rediscovered, above-mentioned things seem impossible or impracticable to anyone, I am most readily disposed to demonstrate them in your park or in whatsoever place shall please Your Excellency, to term papers on post stress, whom I commend myself with all possible humility. Stay Alert to writers, Other Opportunities, and Be Patient. Da Vinci asked to join Sforza’s court as a sort of term traumatic stress disorder, battlefield engineer, but the Milanese duke ended up becoming one of on genetic algorithm, his most important artistic patrons, commissioning “The Last Supper” along with important works of science and papers on post disorder architecture.
And Welty wasn’t hired by The New Yorker initially, but she did eventually end up writing for the magazine over the course of her storied career. It just took a couple of decades of waiting. If It’s Your Dream Job, Don’t Worry About Your Qualifications—Just Apply. Sam Pointon didn’t quite have the requisite education and work experience when, in 2009, he applied to be the director of the UK’s National Railway Museum. But you wouldn’t expect him to—he was still in elementary school. His letter began: I am writing to apply to be the new Director of the olaudah equiano, National Railway Museum. Term Papers On Post. I am only 6 but I think I can do this job. I have an electrick train track.
I am good on my train track. I can control 2 trains at once. Like Thompson and paper on genetic algorithm Welty, he didn’t get the job he applied for. (At least not yet.) But the museum was impressed with Sam’s enthusiasm, and—perhaps sensing a PR coup—it created a new position for him: Director of Fun. A museum spokeswoman tells Quartz that Sam “retired at the grand old age of 10 in summer 2012 so he could focus on his studies.” Not a bad run for term on post disorder a first job. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an olaudah essays, individual do about climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Two Dark American Truths From Las Vegas. On the certainty of papers on post, more shootings. Beyond the scores of people who have been killed and research paper algorithm the hundreds who have been wounded in Las Vegas today, thousands of other people, though not visibly or directly injured, have had their lives changed forever.
Children and parents. Husbands and wives. Brothers and sisters. Something is term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, instantly and permanently gone from their lives. Co-workers and friends. Members of churches or sports leagues or the PTA. Customers and clients and students. Neighbors and casual acquaintances at the coffee shop or the bar. Atlantis Rediscovered. The rest of their days will be different and shadowed because of this massacre. Term Stress. “Children, I want to algorithm, explain why Coach Franklin won’t be leading our soccer team any more. Something bad happened, and . ” A small group of programmers wants to term disorder, change how we code—before catastrophe strikes. T here were six hours during the night of April 10, 2014, when the entire population of finn essay conclusion, Washington State had no 911 service.
People who called for help got a busy signal. One Seattle woman dialed 911 at least 37 times while a stranger was trying to term papers on post disorder, break into her house. When he finally crawled into consequentialism her living room through a window, she picked up a kitchen knife. The man fled. The 911 outage, at the time the largest ever reported, was traced to on post traumatic disorder, software running on a server in Englewood, Colorado. Operated by article, a systems provider named Intrado, the server kept a running counter of how many calls it had routed to papers stress disorder, 911 dispatchers around the country. Intrado programmers had set a threshold for how high the counter could go. They picked a number in the millions.
The world’s most powerful information gatekeepers neglected their duties in Las Vegas. Length Of Personal. Again. In the crucial early hours after the Las Vegas mass shooting, it happened again: Hoaxes, completely unverified rumors, failed witch hunts, and blatant falsehoods spread across the internet. But they did not do so by themselves: They used the infrastructure that Google and Facebook and YouTube have built to achieve wide distribution. These companies are the papers stress disorder, most powerful information gatekeepers that the world has ever known, and yet they refuse to huck essay conclusion, take responsibility for their active role in term on post disorder, damaging the quality of olaudah essays, information reaching the traumatic stress, public. BuzzFeed ’s Ryan Broderick found that Google’s “top stories” results surfaced 4chan forum posts about a man that right-wing amateur sleuths had incorrectly identified as the of personal, Las Vegas shooter. Why Did the Islamic State Claim the Las Vegas Shooting? Assessing the group’s puzzling statement. This morning, the Islamic State’s semi-official news agency, Amaq, took credit for the Las Vegas massacre, which killed 58 and wounded another 515. The likely killer, identified by term on post disorder, police as 64-year-old Stephen Paddock of Mesquite, Nevada, was not known to be a supporter of the atlantis, Islamic State, or indeed a Muslim of any type.
For now, the on post, only evidence that the Islamic State was involved is its own assurance—first a press release announcing that a “soldier of the Islamic State” executed the concertgoers, and a follow-up for of personal statement the baffled, explaining that he converted to term traumatic, Islam months ago. The FBI has stated that it doesn’t believe the attack was related to international terrorism. The sun has barely risen on Las Vegas, and consequentialism essay there may be blood still slick on papers on post traumatic disorder, the Strip. Olaudah Essays. Speculation about mass shootings in the hours after they occur is not just a fool’s game but an traumatic disorder, impatient fool’s. Evidence will be forthcoming, and these assertions by essay, the Islamic State will be tested against reality. But already I hear a familiar chorus of doubt: The Islamic State will “take credit for anything,” it says, “even hurricanes.” Did Manafort Use Trump to Curry Favor With a Putin Ally?
Emails turned over to term disorder, investigators detail the former campaign chair's efforts to length of personal statement, please an term traumatic disorder, oligarch tied to the Kremlin. On the evening of April 11, 2016, two weeks after Donald Trump hired the political consultant Paul Manafort to lead his campaign’s efforts to length of personal statement, wrangle Republican delegates, Manafort emailed his old lieutenant Konstantin Kilimnik, who had worked for him for a decade in the Ukrainian capital, Kiev. “I assume you have shown our friends my media coverage, right?” Manafort wrote. “Absolutely,” Kilimnik responded a few hours later from Kiev. “Every article.” “How do we use to get whole,” Manafort asks. Papers On Post Traumatic. “Has OVD operation seen?” According to a source close to Manafort, the initials “OVD” refer to Oleg Vladimirovich Deripaska, a Russian oligarch and one of olaudah, Russia’s richest men. The source also confirmed that one of the individuals repeatedly mentioned in the email exchange as an papers traumatic stress disorder, intermediary to Deripaska is an huck, aide to the oligarch. A Presidential Speech Steeped in term papers on post traumatic disorder, Hypocrisy. Trump would have done better to finn conclusion, say a few things that sound real than a great many that sound false.
Pre-presidential Trump was a man of many faults and vices, but one endearing quality: He was no hypocrite. Term On Post Traumatic Stress. He exaggerated his wealth, his success, his physical fitness, but he never pretended to rediscovered, religion or morality. Trump’s speech to the nation after the Las Vegas atrocity, however, was steeped in on post stress, hypocrisy. He is the least outwardly religious president of modern times, the president least steeped in atlantis, scripture. On Post Traumatic. For him to offer the consolations of God and faith after mass bloodletting is to invite derision. “It is length of personal, love that defines us,” said President Trump, and if we weren’t heartbroken, we would laugh. Those who praised the speech, as CNN’s John King did, are reacting on reflex. This is the kind of thing we are used to hearing from Republican politicians; Trump is a Republican politician; therefore this is what he should say. The rocker, who always let his songs be the traumatic, star, is dead at 66. In 2015, The Washington Post asked Tom Petty’s biographer Warren Zanes why Petty doesn’t get more respect. One reason, Zanes said, was that Petty had too many hits: “People go, ‘oh, it’s too commercial.’” The other reason was that this particular rock star emphasized music over personality. “He didn’t ever get a trampoline out and do a backflip,” Zanes said. “No, he goes out and plays the songs that he wrote.”
Footage of the singer’s 2008 Super Bowl halftime performance testifies to that assessment, and it’s worth watching in light of Petty’s death at the age of 66. On the largest stage anyone can play on, Petty and research the Heartbreakers didn’t do much other than execute their material flawlessly. The lack of spectacle came off like a power move: Can you believe we have these songs ? If guns aren’t a problem, why does the U.S. Traumatic Stress Disorder. have so many more shootings than any other country? For all its use, “thoughts and prayers” doesn’t appear to have produced a quantifiable reduction in length, the rates of gun violence. Over years of mass murders in the United States, the aphorism has become a statement of unwillingness to address causes or prevention—the justification being that during a period of mourning, no substantive remarks should be made. On Monday, after the country’s 273rd mass shooting of the term on post traumatic disorder, year, President Trump tweeted the thesaurus version: “warmest condolences and sympathies.” Amid an unparalleled epidemic of research paper, gun violence—the murderer of some 58 people was reportedly armed with 19 rifles and hundreds of rounds of term on post disorder, ammunition—words ripped from a greeting card in a hospital gift shop felt pointedly avoidant. Trump’s speech Monday morning underscored this evasiveness, as he called the writers needed, mass murder in papers on post stress, Las Vegas “evil.” He used the term four times in just 572 words. He did not mention firearms or psychosis or domestic terrorism, but blamed only “pure evil.” Did the Las Vegas Shooting Involve an Automatic Weapon? Authorities are investigating how Stephen Paddock produced the high rate of fire that marked his attack.
This story was updated on Monday, October 2 at 11:22 pm. On Sunday night, authorities said a gunman opened fire on a crowd of music-festival attendees from a room on the 32nd floor of the Mandalay Bay Resort and rediscovered Casino in term traumatic stress, Las Vegas. The suspect, 64-year-old Stephen Paddock, allegedly shot and killed 58 people in article needed, what has become the papers traumatic disorder, deadliest mass shooting in American history—firing at a rate that set this incident apart from other recent shootings. Las Vegas Police said Paddock was found dead when a SWAT team entered his hotel room, where investigators also reportedly found up to 20 firearms. (Las Vegas police have not yet released details of the firearms involved.) Semi-automatic guns shoot only one round for every pull of the trigger. Length Statement. Military-style automatic rifles and machine guns are able to fire multiple rounds per trigger pull. Australia's Lessons on Gun Control.
The 1996 Port Arthur massacre resulted in legislation that saw a dramatic decline in gun crimes. On April 28, 1996, a 28-year-old Australian man named Martin Bryant ate lunch at Broad Arrow Cafe in Port Arthur, Tasmania, a historic penal colony that is term papers on post traumatic disorder, a popular tourist resort. Length Statement. After his meal, he returned his tray, removed a semiautomatic rifle from his bag, and opened fire. By the time Bryant was caught a day later, 35 people were dead and 23 wounded in what became the term papers traumatic stress, worst mass shooting in Australian history—one whose impact is felt even today. There had been previous mass shootings in Australia, but none in recent times of this magnitude.
The killings, which came just weeks after the mass shooting in Dunblane, Scotland, resonated across Australia, a nation that traditionally had a high rate of gun ownership and that espoused the consequentialism, ideals of rugged individualism, much like the U.S. Term Papers Traumatic Stress Disorder. does. But after the massacre, the ruling center-right Liberal Party joined with groups from across the political spectrum to length, work on legislation to term on post stress, sharply restrict the availability of guns. What If Everyone Ate Beans Instead of Beef? What can an individual do about research paper algorithm climate change? The easiest answer: make this one dietary switch. Research shows that using curse words can persuade everyone from voters to your co-workers. Meeting the Son of Your Sister’s Killer. In an exclusive excerpt from term on post traumatic stress, The Witness , Kitty Genovese's brother gets close to confronting her murderer.
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Term Papers On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - Little Sisters of the
THE MILAN APPROACH TO FAMILY THERAPY: A CRITIQUE KATE TUCKER. The essence of life is the papers on post stress disorder, progression of such changes as growth, self-duplication, and synthesis of complex relationships. (Odum 1983: 87) Life occurs within the context of atlantis, ecosystems, which include both the living and non-living elements of the environment (Odum 1983: 13). All the elements of an ecosystem influence each other in patterns of interdependencies. An ecosystemic post-modernist, deconstructionist view, presupposes that there is no one culture, no one worldview or reality, and no one #145;correct#146; model of psychology. It is particularly important to understand this point in term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, the South African context, where so many cultural and ethnic groups live side by side in an ever-changing ecology of ideas. If a critique is to be meaningful, it should be informed, and should take into account the ecology of the conceptual framework that is being subject to criticism and should be consistent with the assumptions of that framework (Becvar Becvar 1998: 221).
An attempt will be made therefore to enter into the ecology or framework of the Milan approach to finn, family therapy in order to write this critique. Traumatic Disorder! However, consistent with a ecosystemic perspective, it should be born in of personal, mind that the underlying propositions of the culture in term traumatic stress, which one has been socialised have a fundamental influence on one#146;s view of reality, on one#146;s thought processes, perceptions and intellectual functioning. In other words, in order to write a truly meaningful critical evaluation of the Milan approach to family therapy, it is not possible to stand outside the theory and merely observe (as in the black box metaphor) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 63). The act of engaging in critical evaluation sets up a dialogue with the theory, which impacts on the worldview of the writer. The process of on genetic, interpretation of the theory in order to subject it to critical analysis impacts on the theory #150; the theory as interpreted is not necessarily the theory as intended by the originators of that theory. The way that the reality of the papers on post, theory is life essays, observed partly determines what is seen and term papers disorder how that reality is understood (Zohar 1991: 28). Honderich (1995:13) says that there is needed, currently a distinct vacuum in term traumatic stress disorder, interpretative theory#133; critical as well as philosophical, #145;continental#146; as well as #145;analytic#146; #150; across the entire range of western debate. Olaudah Equiano Essays! The Milan group contended that there is a tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), which traps therapists and clients into linear ways of thinking.
This writer sees the work of the Milan group as a dialogue or rather #145;multilogue#146; that attempts to break free of the received view of the term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, Western logical-positivist tradition, and research on genetic traditional depth psychology. This writer sees the systemic approach of the Milan group as confronting the #145;tyranny of linguistics#146; and the #145;discursive vacuum#146;. The original Milan group (Palazzoli, Boscolo, Cecchin, Prata) has split up and the various members have gone their separate ways (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239), splitting up in 1980 (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). However, the epistemology of the divergent groups can reasonably be assumed to still be based on the same underlying principles as that of the original group. Bearing this in mind, the discussion of the epistemology of the Milan group will be based on the broad principles of the original group. There are several important elements of the Milan group#146;s approach that require discussion. The systemic element. The Milan approach to papers stress, family therapy has been called systemic in the tradition of life equiano, Bateson#146;s circular epistemology. On Post Stress Disorder! (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) For Bateson (1971: 243) systems are units that incorporate feedback mechanisms; and by virtue of feedback, these units (systems) can process information. Essay! Such systems can be ecological, social, and individual.
Individuals are contextually located. For Bateson, families are systems comprised of individuals who are also systems (Bateson 1971: 243). Most important for Bateson was the shift in focus from term, traditional linear thinking and the traditional perception of the individual mind to a way of understanding the mind as part of a circuit. This means that the concept of mind is considered within the context of all relevant completed circuits (Bateson 1971: 244). In this manner Bateson resolves the life, dichotomy between mind and body, as for him mind, body, action and the objects (or people) which are acted upon are all part of a circuit of mental activity. This means that for term traumatic, Bateson, behaviour that in the traditional paradigms is paper on genetic algorithm, considered to papers on post traumatic disorder, be pathological or abnormal and consequentialism essay intrapsychic, is in the circular paradigm, interpersonal and relational (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). The focus in Bateson#146;s paradigm has shifted from the inner workings of the individual mind to the consideration of relationships in context (Becvar Becvar 1998: 22). Bateson based his ideas on several sources, including the papers on post traumatic stress, work of Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Norbert Wiener, Warren McCulloch, Alfred North Whitehead, and Bertrand Russell, as well as mathematics and engineering (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18 f.) An important concept for Bateson was Russell#146;s paradox, based on his Theory of Logical Types (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18). Essentially Russell#146;s paradox states that most classes are not members of themselves, but some are (Honderich 1995: 785).
Russell#146;s Theory of Logical Types deals with the essay, complexities of relations between the members of term papers traumatic, classes and the discontinuity that arises between different levels of abstraction, or between a class and the members of that class (Becvar Becvar 1998: 18) (Honderich 1995: 785, 884). Bateson examined the paradoxical situations suggested by Russell#146;s paradox and the dislocated communication patterns that can exist in rediscovered, such situations. Based on this Bateson and his research group moved towards a position of seeing disorders, such as schizophrenia, in terms of communication patterns within individuals and on post traumatic within families, rather than in terms of biogenic or intrapsychic pathology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 20). Several of these elements are important in the context of the Milan group. Paradoxes, levels of meaning, the research on genetic algorithm, evolutionary nature of systems (even when apparently stuck) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240), patterns of on post traumatic stress disorder, information, feedback and huck finn recursiveness are all concepts that draw from stress disorder, Bateson#146;s work. Systems are homeostatic and huck finn essay conclusion morphogenic (McKay, in Visser et al 1995: 285 f.); they strive simultaneously for balance and term papers traumatic stress disorder change. Macy (1991) suggests that systems are autonomous. Life Olaudah! Macy then proceeds to discuss the autonomy of systems in on post disorder, terms of self-regulation (homeostasis and morphogenesis): systems regulate themselves, but are conditioned (changed) by the environment and by input from the environment (Macy 1991: 92).
The Milan group saw the atlantis, world in terms of patterns of relationships and information, rather than in terms of matter and energy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). For Macy, matter, energy, and term papers information are utilised dynamically by systems: external causes are actively transformed in interaction with any system (Macy 1991: 92). Writers! Because of the term traumatic disorder, dynamics of essay, change within systems, the implication is that systems are not subject solely to either internal or external causes. This perspective is consistent with Bateson#146;s view that people#146;s behaviour and thought processes must be seen in terms of the total context of the relationship between people, actions, thoughts and external objects or people in term papers stress, relationship. The Milan group saw that families came to therapy with a paradoxical request: families wanted the stability of an unchanged system, but also wanted the problem member of the family to be cured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). However, the Milan group saw the atlantis rediscovered, problem as being rooted in the family rather than in traumatic stress, the individual. Consistent with a systems theoretical perspective, and consistent with Bateson#146;s circular or recursive patterns, the group believed that it was not possible to atlantis, change the patterns of behaviour and communication in one part of the system (the identified patient) without affecting the family system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 4.3 . Feedback and equifinality/equipotentiality. Feedback is described as the aspect of recursion involving self-correction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 64). Papers On Post Disorder! Feedback is what keeps a system functioning the way it does. Writers! The Milan group took cognisance of the importance of recursiveness 3.1.1 and feedback. It was important that both theory and therapy be responsive to traumatic stress disorder, feedback in the therapy situation (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
Negative feedback is taken into account in the Milan Group#146;s approach to length statement, theory and therapy (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). The Milan Group#146;s awareness of what happened in the therapeutic situation led them to discard a linear way of thinking and suggesting interventions, and to move towards a more circular approach to instigation and intervention (Palazzoli et al 1989: 118). This demonstrates that feedback from therapy punctuated their epistemology and that changes in papers on post stress disorder, epistemology led to changes in clinical practices. This means that the system of the length, Milan Group itself changed: the papers stress, ecology of ideas took on a different perspective. This is an example of feedback on research on genetic a level of simple cybernetics: the system (the Milan Group) changed in response to on post stress, information fed back into it from interaction between the group and consequentialism the clients. The status quo was not maintained, so the process is referred to as positive feedback (Becvar Becvar 1998: 65). A second-order cybernetic way of looking at feedback in this context is that the Milan Group was error-activated: information that differed from their original ideas was fed back into the system (the Group, in term papers traumatic disorder, interaction with their clients), and the Group responded to this information in such a way that the difference (from their previous concepts) was accepted (Becvar Becvar 1998: 66). It is important to note that this feedback still functioned to article writers needed, stabilise or correct the system: the Milan Group incorporated new ideas, changed their strategies and thinking into more circular patterns, and continued to function (until such time as the Group did in fact split up) as a family therapeutic group. Whether or not the members of the Milan Group analysed the feedback process in term stress disorder, this manner is not known.
What is important is that they incorporated feedback from therapy into theory and vice versa. According to the principle of equifinality systems function according to characteristic, repetitive patterns of interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). The goal of a system is its own survival (Palazzoli et al 1989: 159): a system, as it is , is its own best explanation of itself (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69) (my italics). Length Statement! Family members tend to develop habits and ways of communicating and relating to each other, so that regardless of how a situation starts, the tendency is to term papers stress, end in consequentialism essay, a characteristic way. Term Disorder! An example might be a wife#146;s complaint that her husband #145;always#146; shouts at her when she does something he does not approve of, while the husband might react by saying that his wife #145;never#146; considers the implications of her actions, but #145;only ever#146; thinks of the immediate present. Whether the wife buys expensive Christmas presents for the children, or new curtains, with her annual bonus, the end result will be that the husband will shout at her for not thinking of putting some money aside as savings. The wife considers that the purpose of the annual bonus is to provide for Christmas or to refurbish the home.
The husband perceives the wife as never thinking of the future: each reacts in a certain, characteristic way, which preserves the article, system and term on post traumatic the communication patterns as they are. Complementary to the principle of equifinality is the principle of equiano, equipotentiality, which states that different endings can be reached from the same initial actions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). To continue with the example: the husband might decide that the new curtains are actually an investment in the family home, and might praise his wife for her forethought and consideration in not spending her bonus on presents that the children will have forgotten about before the term on post traumatic stress, end of January. The wife might be so pleasantly surprised that she would start to invest some of huck finn, her salary every month towards future home improvements. Papers On Post! These two complementary principles have a focus in the here-and-now, directing one towards what is happening rather than why something is happening. What is important is the present functioning of the system, rather than the history of how the system came to be or to function in a certain way (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Initially the Milan Group based their theory on the concepts of the Palo Alto Group, using the telephone system model (a model of interactive circularity) (Palazzoli, Cirillo, Selvini Sorrentino 1989: 159) (Cecchin et al 1994: 14). This model is impersonal and a-historical: all users are equal, irrespective of who they are, what their personal characteristics are, and what their historical backgrounds are.
What is important in a telephone system is life olaudah, rapid action and term papers on post traumatic stress disorder reaction (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). This model functions according to the principles of equifinality and equipotentiality. However, for the Milan Group, the model proved to article writers needed, be inadequate. For this group what mattered was the papers on post traumatic disorder, circular processes and interactions within the family that take place over article needed, the years that it takes for a person to become a patient. For the Milan Group, the circularity that mattered is to be found in the history, not in the instant (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160) (original italics). Time or history, for the Milan Group was vitally important, and they saw time as being linked to process (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). They found that the telephone system model to be simplistic and reductive (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For example, according to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 160) there are many factors that might cause a husband to become a wife-beater: provocative behaviour by the wife, education level, adherence to cultural norms, personality, motivations, expectations, and the rules of what the Milan Group calls the family game. This does not mean that they rejected the importance of the here-and-now in their theoretical or clinical work, but believed rather that the here-and-now should be integrated together with history into papers on post, a multidimensional model (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160). For the Milan Group circularity is a process that entails a completion the various arcs of a circuit over finn, a period of time, but that also takes into account the here-and-now, and incorporates individual, intermediate events. It is on post stress, important to note at this stage that the position assumed by the Milan Group is thus inconsistent with second order cybernetics, as it does have a historical perspective, in research on genetic algorithm, addition to a present oriented focus 6 . Strategic approaches evolved from both general systems theory and communications approaches to psychology (Becvar Becvar 1998: 223).
Strategic therapists build on the assumptions that #145;one cannot not communicate#146; and #145;one cannot not behave#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). These assumptions form an important part of communication science. In communication science there are many models to explain the process of communication, from the linear Shannon and papers stress disorder Weaver model, through Osgood and Schramm#146;s circular model to Verderber#146;s transactional model (Steinberg 1997:17 ff.). Verderber#146;s transactional model is of relevance in rediscovered, this context, as it demonstrates not only that communication is an ongoing, circular process, verbal and non-verbal, but that it is a process by which the parties concerned negotiate meanings (Steinberg 1997: 19). According to Steinberg (1997: 19) the creation of meaning is negotiated between the papers on post traumatic stress disorder, participants (my italics). In postmodernist, cybernetic terms, this implies that meaning is not present prior to the communication encounter, but that meaning is writers needed, created out of the encounter, according to the way that the encounter or relationship punctuates the realities of the parties.
Strategic therapists add a further injunction to the two above, namely; #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). In a relationship each member tries to find ways of being in a position to define or control the relationship (Becvar Becvar 1998: 222). Steinberg (1997: 84) suggests that this is true even in apparently one-sided power relationships, such as a complementary autocratic-abdicratic relationship: both parties seek to define and control the relationship as one in which their needs are met. Term Papers On Post! The autocrat seeks to article, control and on post stress disorder dominate, while the abdicrat seeks to be dominated, abdicating control to the dominant partner. Each seeks to define the relationship to meet their specific needs. Becvar Becvar (1998: 222) suggest that manipulation is the inevitable consequence of being in a relationship in which each member seeks to control or define its nature. Communication patterns, the impossibility of not communicating/behaving (behaviour being seen as a way of communicating), paradoxical injunctions, and manipulation are important aspects of the strategic approach that Milan Group have incorporated into their theory and practice. The Milan Group found it important to paper on genetic, consider the history of their clients; for them it was necessary to know and understand the clients#146; backgrounds and influences over time 3.1.2 . This is related to the concern that strategic therapists direct to the conceptual frameworks of their clients. It is term papers stress disorder, also related to Bateson#146;s 3.1.1 concept that body, mind, action, and person/object are all part of a circuit of relationship: the huck essay conclusion, mind and term papers on post traumatic its thoughts do not exist independently of the body or of the people, actions and relationships that form the system in which an huck finn essay conclusion individual functions.
A problem is term stress, not a problem unless it is defined as such (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). How a person or family defines a specific behaviour as problematic reflects the way they think, as well as how they relate to each other#146;s worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). However, the clients are not necessarily aware that there is more than one way of looking at consequentialism the behaviour that they have defined as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224): they are not necessarily aware that people function in papers disorder, a multiverse rather than a universe. Strategic therapists believe it is statement, important to reframe the problem in such a way that it is no longer perceived as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). The Milan Group saw that new meanings needed to be introduced into a family system in order to change behaviour and to term papers on post stress, reframe or re-write the perception of consequentialism essay, a given behaviour so that it was not longer seen as problematic (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Meanings are defined by papers stress conceptual frameworks or worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 224). Rediscovered! Therefore the Milan Group needed to be able to understand the worldviews of term papers, their clients, and to do this they considered it vitally important to writers needed, understand the history of their clients (Palazzoli et al 1989: 160, 260, op cit.) 3.1.2 . Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication states that meaning is papers on post traumatic, created in a communication encounter (Steinberg 1997: 19, op cit.). Article! The Milan Group did not regard their clients as phenomena #145;out there#146;, but rather as a therapeutic system of term papers traumatic stress, family plus therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267). They used the therapeutic encounters to research algorithm, perturb the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267) so as to create new meanings or thought connections that would lead to new patterns of term stress disorder, thought and behaviour (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) (i.e. to worldviews that did not admit the previous definition of the problem). It is crucial to note that the Milan Group recognised that the different family members each reacted in their own different ways to therapeutic inventions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260). This acknowledgement lead them, in a recursive way, back to acknowledging the importance of history, which placed them in an epistemological dilemma: a cybernetic, systemic view stressing the olaudah essays, importance of the here-and-now versus the term on post stress, need for history (Palazzoli et al 1989: 260).
This led to their moving towards a multidimensional approach to both therapy and theory, and a determined effort not to become trapped in an ideological reification of essays, systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 261). A significant way of avoiding this ideological or dogmatic trap was suggested by papers traumatic stress Cecchin and colleagues after the split up of the original Milan Group. This is the viewing of article writers needed, models, hypotheses, and techniques as prejudices rather than unquestionable facts (Cecchin, Lane Ray 1994: 15). Papers Traumatic Stress! In terms of Verderber#146;s transactional model of consequentialism essay, communications, prejudices or beliefs are located within the process and the communicating system. This model stresses the importance of papers on post traumatic stress disorder, values, background, attitudes, and equiano culture in the creation and papers on post traumatic disorder negotiation of meaning (Steinberg 1995: 19). Thus, even though Cecchin and colleagues#146; epistemological position post-dates the original Milan Group, it can be seen to have developed out of the strategic approach that was one of the jumping off points for the original group#146;s theoretical framework. Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) take the epistemological standpoint that there is of personal, no one truth and therefore that therapists should be aware there is no one truth to term traumatic, discover. Algorithm! Perceiving a model, hypothesis, or technique as a prejudice or bias, and being aware of multiverses rather than a universe, allows therapists to engage in true dialogue with clients and other therapists, rather than forcing a bias on to others (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). This does not mean that a prejudice or bias is not useful, but rather that therapists should be self-reflexive and term traumatic should engage in open scrutiny and examination of the life equiano, beliefs (Cecchin et al 1994: 15).
Further, Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 15) stress the fact that any belief that is term traumatic stress, worth holding should not only be examined in this way, but that it should be contextually relevant. A belief only makes sense in consequentialism essay, context, and taking it out of context stops dialogue and can lead to the system (the family plus the term on post traumatic, therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 267 op cit. Life Olaudah Equiano Essays! 3.2 ).) becoming stuck (Cecchin et al 1994: 15). The self-reflexivity that Cecchin and colleagues propose is naturally related to the broad principles of general systems theory. Framing the beliefs of the term stress, therapist in terms of prejudices that could interrupt the communication process within the system of family plus therapist is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. The linguistic element and indeterminacy. The Milan group focused on overcoming the tyranny of linguistics, which by its very nature keeps therapists and clients thinking in essay, an intrapsychic, linear manner. They thus forced a different language on themselves as they sought to understand families in different ways. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239) The Milan Group forced (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239 op cit.) themselves to term papers traumatic stress disorder, find a new language that was open to difference and to a multiversal point of view.
Underpinning this new language (Becvar Becvar 1998 239 op cit.), which sought to life olaudah essays, free the therapeutic system from term disorder, entrenched meanings that led to life olaudah equiano, systems becoming stuck, is an epistemology that derives from a deconstructionist philosophy. In second order cybernetics and in a transactional model of communications, reality is created or negotiated in the here-and-now 3.2 (Steinberg 1994: 19) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 69). Husserl tried to achieve a theory of the relationship between a communicator#146;s words (written or spoken) and language in terms of term on post stress, differential signs (Honderich 1995: 201). Husserl also tried to systematise the here-and-now as presence: presence as #145;here#146; and presence as #145;now#146; being one and the same (Taylor 1992: 253). Deconstructionist philosopher Derrida coined the term différance in reaction to paper, Husserl#146;s philosophy. For Derrida the traumatic stress disorder, present (time) and what is present (spatially) is always becoming: it never #145;is#146;, there is no ultimate point of existence in space-time (Taylor 1992: 253). In other words, and consistent with second order cybernetics and essay Verderber#146;s model, reality and papers traumatic stress meaning are always becoming or being created; they do not exist out there waiting to be discovered. Equally, reality and length statement meaning are never #145;real#146; or fixed in the past; the reality of the past is term on post stress disorder, being created within people as they punctuate their present, becoming realities. Also prominent in Derrida#146;s work is article writers needed, his examination of on post traumatic disorder, language and how language outwits philosophers (Honderich 1995: 188). To this end he emphasises puns, paradoxes, metaphors, ambiguity, indeterminacy, and the importance of play (Honderich 1995: 188).
The Milan Group also focussed on metaphor and essay paradox in their work and theory (Becvar Becvar 1998), and their first major publication was Paradox and Counterparadox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239). Strategic therapists 3.2 also used paradox, metaphor, and play as therapeutic tools (Becvar Becvar 1998: 229 ff.). There is a conceptual link between language, reality, meaning, and papers on post traumatic indeterminacy. Research Algorithm! Derrida emphasised indeterminacy in his approach to language and meaning, as well as in his approach to term papers traumatic disorder, reality (Taylor 1992: 253, op cit.) Indeterminacy is, for of personal, Derrida, a concept that is part of the différance : it is the relationship between oppositions that makes oppositions (or dichotomies) both simultaneously possible and impossible (Goosen 1994:101). Western traditional philosophy and psychology tends to be linear and dichotomous in term papers disorder, its approach, characterised by oppositions (male-female, good-bad, right-wrong, people-God etc.) (Goosen 1994: 25). Hegel#146;s philosophy was an attempt to create a union of these dichotomies (Goosen 1994: 25) and to heal the fragmentation he perceived in modern life (Goosen 1994: 51). Derrida, however, proposed that modern life is indeterminate: there is no healing union or whole. This was recognised by the Milan Group, who assumed the position that they had to learn to live with doubt, both about essay conclusion theory and papers traumatic stress disorder praxis (Cecchin et al 1994: 19).
With some similarity to Russell#146;s paradox 3.1.1 , Derrida suggests that the whole cannot exist except by virtue of its difference from the nonwhole (Goosen 1994: 101). Derrida#146;s view of atlantis, indeterminacy or the différance suggests that if the whole is possible by virtue of the existence of something other than itself (non-whole), then it ceases to traumatic disorder, be a whole, because it depends on essay something outside itself. But Derrida also says that the whole must exist only because it is different from that which is not whole (Goosen 1994: 101, op cit.). Term Disorder! Therefore the différance both makes the whole possible and at the same time makes it impossible (Goosen 1994: 101). A systemic, cybernetic, post-modernist paradigm acknowledges the multiversal nature of realities as created within people, and that there is no reality that is not valid or meaningful for the person concerned (Maturana, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 82).
In other words, reality is indeterminate and non-deterministic. Reality cannot be said to length of personal statement, exist as a construct #145;out there#146; that makes rules that determine how people think: rather, people determine their own reality. However, that reality is always changing: the reality of term stress, one person changes over time depending on how the environment punctuates that person#146;s view of reality, as well as how that person adjusts to and reacts to that punctuation. Rediscovered! Most people tend to think in language rather than in visual terms: people engage in internal dialogues in words rather than pictures. Therefore it can be said that language is one of the factors that shapes the way people perceive reality. People socialised in term on post traumatic stress disorder, a Western culture also tend to think in terms of dichotomies or oppositions (Goosen 1994: 25, op cit.). Derrida#146;s concept of the différance, while it does not try to resolve these dichotomies, opens the way to different ways of looking at language and behaviour and their impact on life equiano behaviour. Term On Post Traumatic! It is important in terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy to look in between the extremes (e.g. right and wrong, problem and solution) and to find a language that admits to the fleeting, becoming nature of reality. It s this writer#146;s opinion that the Milan Group#146;s concept of freeing people from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) is consistent with Derrida#146;s philosophy. However, there is a problem regarding indeterminacy concerning the definitions of #145;health#146; and #145;dysfunction#146;. These words imply the pejorative meanings of good and bad, which are dichotomous, and therefore not consistent with a philosophy that attempts to look #145;in between#146; extremes.
What the Milan Group#146;s approach then attempted to huck conclusion, achieve was to help clients to term stress, reach a point where they could understand that there was more than one reality, and then to help them to re-write the language in which they conducted their own internal dialogues, according to their perception of reality and huck essay conclusion problems as defined by that reality (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). In other words, they tried to allow the family to look in between the dichotomies of papers traumatic, right and wrong, problem and solution, by rephrasing the way in paper on genetic, which perceived problems were stated or expressed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241). Term Papers! The Group did not just teach the consequentialism, clients this new language, they themselves consistently used it, contextualising problems in term on post traumatic stress disorder, terms of article writers needed, social and family relationships (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241, 240). Disorder! They also placed mental phenomena in the greater context of olaudah equiano, social phenomena #150; moving problems from an papers on post traumatic disorder intrapsychic locus to a social locus. This is also a use of article writers, language to re-write problems in on post, terms of essay, a different reality. A further tenet of the theory of the Milan Group was to use the word #145;game#146;. Term Papers Stress Disorder! According to Palazzoli and colleagues (1989: 152) a game consists of an length of personal exchange of concrete bits of papers disorder, behaviour among subjects. The Milan Group found that the use of certain systemic terms was confusing, or limiting, being related to the biological origins of general systems theory (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). However, by using the metaphor of consequentialism essay, games and game playing to describe to themselves how systems functioned, they found that the metaphors associated with games were better frames of reference for their research (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). Game playing immediately evokes interhuman relations and interaction, which the Milan Group felt systemic terminology failed to do (Palazzoli et al 1989: 152). For the Milan Group, the metaphors of term papers stress disorder, games and game playing were the point of entry into a new vocabulary, which related their theory to familiar, human reactions and interactions (Palazzoli et al 1989: 153).
It is research paper algorithm, impossible to ignore the problems connected with auto-organization. (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264) (My italics) Multiversal or multi-dimensional thinking and behaviour must, according to the Milan Group, take into account the fact that systems organise themselves (auto-organisation) in order to stress, function optimally (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). Systems are limited as to article, what they can do by their structure, rather than by their environment (Becvar Becvar 1998: 79). For example: plastics can be malleable, rigid, or brittle, and serve various different purposes, according various manufacturing processes. Plastic photochromatic lenses are used in lightweight optometric spectacles. However, the type of plastic used to make cheap, disposable food containers would not be able to serve the same function. The process and treatment (structure) of the basic element (plastic) limits the term papers on post stress, scope of the end product. So it is with systems: they are limited by their structure. How then can we account for change in systems in interaction with environment?
Systems are organised in certain ways, and within systems, sub-systems are also organised. Organisation is seen as the relationships between the parts of a system (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The structure of a system refers to the identity of a system (a ball, a plastic box, a photochromatic lens, a family, a company) as well as to the relationships between the its parts (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77). The environment of consequentialism, a system includes the system itself #150; the environment is both internal and external. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by traumatic stress virtue of atlantis rediscovered, that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Based on papers disorder this type of understanding of the functioning of systems, the Milan Group found it crucial to pay attention to individuals and their needs and goals, as well to the organisation of the families of which individuals were members (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). People tend to weigh up the pros and cons of their actions and how these might affect their families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). For example: a husband will discuss a new job, which entails a higher salary and paper more prestige with his wife, bearing in mind that the family would have to relocate to a strange city or country, and how this move might negatively affect their children#146;s education and term on post traumatic stress social lives. Writers Needed! In this case the organisation of the family would dictate whether or not the children were involved in the discussion, even if they were old enough to reasonably be expected to wish to term papers disorder, state an opinion or join in the discussion. In certain families the decision might be made without recourse to the children, and this could result in an unhappy teenager ruining away from home, or abusing drugs or alcohol.
Other problems of conclusion, organisation concern matters such as death. When a parent dies it can be expected that family members will mourn, which is term papers on post disorder, a natural process. However, the writers needed, family system would need to re-organise in order to continue to function optimally. For example: feuds could develop between children, or the father and the children as a united front, and an aunt, as to who should take over the maternal role in the case of the death of a mother (Palazzoli et al 1989: 264). As the Milan Group felt it necessary to pay attention to the important factor of the organisation, and by implication, to the structure of systems, it can be said that their approach in this regard is consistent with a cybernetic viewpoint. THERAPEUTIC INTERVENTIONS AND STRATEGIES. The whole process of [Milan Group] therapy is carefully orchestrated to be consistent with the model on which it is built. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 241) For the sake of clarity a brief tabular summary of the term on post traumatic stress, Milan Group#146;s approach to finn conclusion, the therapy process will be presented before therapeutic interventions and strategies are discussed. Figure One shows a traditional therapy setting where an observing team is involved, as was probably similar to the setting used by the Milan Group.
Table One: Summary of the term on post traumatic disorder, Milan Group#146;s approach to the therapy process. Ten months, divided into ten sessions spaced at atlantis monthly intervals. Usually telephonic Therapist ties to maintain neutrality in order not to be seen by other family members as being in a coalition with the whoever made the initial call Questions phrased in social terms. Calls between sessions. Neutral stance of therapist maintained In case of term papers on post, emergency calls (e.g. suicide attempts) therapist assumes role of social control agent rather than that of therapist.
Therapist brings in on genetic, other members of the therapeutic team Supervision Observation. Therapy session #150; five components. Team discusses the family Family interview with other team members observing Team discussion of the family and the session Conclusions of the team presented to term, the family with other team members observing Post-session where team sums up. Mutual agreement by therapist and family Respect for family#146;s decision to terminate Warning of possibly of relapse or doubt. (from Becvar Becvar 1998: 241 ff.) Figure One: Traditional family therapy setting with an observing team. 1 = Family therapy room. 2 = One-way mirror. 4 = Therapy team. 5 = Invisible boundary separating the team and length statement the observing team. 6 = Observing team.
(from Cecchin et al 1994: 17) The Milan Group used the word paradox as follows: #133;the specific tactics and maneuvres which are in apparent opposition to the goals of term papers on post traumatic, therapy, but are actually designed to achieve them (Rohrbaugh, in Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Statement! Paradoxes are therefore, in this context, such strategies as: prescribing the symptom, positively appraising the symptom, attaching positive connotations to term on post traumatic disorder, symptoms, encouraging symptoms, or expressing fears that certain symptoms might disappear to quickly, and so on (Palazzoli et al 1989: 3). Families presented with a paradoxical request for both stability and change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Families would come to essay, therapy complaining of a problem in one member, the identified patient, who in their opinion, needed to change, to #145;get better#146;. For the Milan Group, true to on post disorder, the tenets of general systems theory, and Bateson#146;s influence, change in life essays, one part of the system cannot occur without change in papers traumatic, the system as a whole (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) 3.1.1 . Therapists would thus place family members into a therapeutic double bind situation by of personal statement not prescribing change, even though the context of therapy is papers on post traumatic stress disorder, a context where change is expected to life essays, take place (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240).
The use of placing families in a therapeutic double bind was seen by term papers traumatic disorder Watzlawick and several strategic therapists as being a useful tool to manoeuvring and controlling the therapist-client relationship (Palazzoli et al 1989: 4 f.). The Milan Group found this use of the strategic paradox problematic, as it failed to take into account adequate relational explanations for specific cases (Palazzoli et al 1989: 5). This is related to the epistemological divergence of the Milan Group from the Palo Alto Group, in finn conclusion, that the Milan Group regarded the historical process as being of crucial importance 3.1.2. The question that the Milan Group found to on post stress, be most significant was: Why is this particular member of this particular family exhibiting this particular symptom at this particular time ? (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6) (My italics). Instead of using the strategy of paradox or counterparadox as a means of controlling the therapeutic relationship, the Milan Group used it as an auxiliary technique, subordinate to their principal concern, which was to observe families (Palazzoli et al 1989: 6). Palazzoli and colleagues go so far as to state that the centre of their focus of interest was families and not therapy (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7).
Further, the Milan Group began to experience the phenomenon that, as time went by, paradoxical interventions were less powerful over time, or produced short-lived results (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9). Another interesting point is that paradoxes had to be tailored specifically to their explanation of why a specific symptom had developed. Article Writers! From the basis of these multiple factors, they used paradoxical interventions in order to provide families with explanations as to why certain symptoms had developed in specific members at certain, specific times (Palazzoli et al 1989: 7). Paradoxes were used in specific ways according to the development of the papers traumatic disorder, therapeutic process over time, according to the number of sessions 4.1 (Palazzoli et al 1989: 9 ff.) The Milan Group also stressed the article writers, fact that paradoxical interventions, irrespective of how specific they might be, and in what positive terms they might be couched, or even how ingenious they were, would not work unless there was a strong need for help from the family concerned (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). In cases where the therapist#146;s prestige (for the family concerned) was weak, or where the family was not strongly motivated to request help, paradoxical interventions could lead to the clients breaking off their relationship with the therapist (Palazzoli et al 1989: 10). The process of circular questioning is a fundamental concept in the Milan model. (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning aimed at transforming families#146; ways of thinking from linear, causal chains of thought into reciprocal, interdependent worldviews (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Important to the concept of circular questioning is the idea that in any relationship, all parties concerned must co-evolve (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). This is consistent with thinking of Macy, who sees the world in terms of conditionality, or mutual co-arising.
Conditionality, in Macy#146;s view, is a dynamic process inherent in the universe whereby everything is interrelated and is mutually affecting (Macy 1991: 40) (My italics). The Milan Group saw that many families presenting for therapy did not function according to the principle of mutual co-arising, or co-evolution, but rather one subsystem, coalition, or family member would be attempting to establish unilateral control over the family unit (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Circular questioning, thus, was designed to punctuate relationships, re-defining them in such way as to show up reciprocity and promote co-evolution (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Not only did the Milan Group use circular questioning to devise hypotheses (not necessarily true ones) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243) regarding possible connections and differences between relationships in families, or which could lead to stress disorder, further questions, they used this technique to continue to develop their basic theory 3.2 . Circular questioning and hypothesis formation formed a very important component of the feedback process between theory and praxis 3.1.2 , namely, that of understanding what was going on in a family. At this point it is important to note the cybernetic consistency of the emphasis on #145;what?#146; In cybernetics the length of personal statement, crucial emphasis is #145;what?#146; rather than #145;why?#146; (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). It was necessary, in fact essential, for the therapist to be seen as neutral, particularly in regard to the process of circular questioning, as this process promotes hypotheses that could lead to further questions (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). Lateral, non-linear thinking was necessary as well, for the therapist to be able to follow the term on post traumatic, openings or responses that revealed themselves from the questions. For the Milan Group neutrality did not mean standing apart, or taking no position regarding any particular family member, but rather being multipositional (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243). The therapist had to consequentialism essay, be aligned to term papers disorder, no one and to writers needed, everyone in the family at term papers disorder the same time, as well as being non-judgemental and non-moral (Becvar Becvar 1998: 243).
Neutrality, and the ability to think openly and non-linearly were therefore closely related, not only to each other, but also to the therapeutic process and to the theory that underpinned it. The Milan Group also believed that neutrality implied support #150; each family member had to huck finn, be supported in a neutral or equal way. The theoretical construct underlying this concept was the view of a family as a whole, greater than the term papers stress disorder, sum of its parts, rather than being seen as the sum of its independent parts or family members. This is consistent with cybernetic thinking, in that systems are seen as non-summative. Neutrality and support together with the underlying principles of circular questioning allowed the families in article, therapy the necessary room and freedom to explore alternative ways of thinking and term papers stress behaving (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). The Milan Group put themselves into the position of not being outsiders (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244) of the family in therapy.
This is epistemologically consistent with the paradigm of family and therapist constituting one system 3.2 . This is also cybernetically consistent, as it avoids the black box, or observer/observed concept. Writers Needed! As insiders, the therapists should not have been seen as posing a threat by the family. Papers On Post Stress! Being inside the system and being accepted as non-threatening can be seen as natural outcomes of the Milan Group#146;s dedication to huck finn essay conclusion, neutrality and support 4.4.1 . However, one must ask the question as to whether or not the on post traumatic stress, therapists were actually perceived in this way by all, or even some family members in all, or even some families. A further question arises as to olaudah equiano essays, the degree of integration in stress disorder, the family system. Essay! However, cybernetically speaking, these questions do provide answers themselves: no matter how much or how little the on post traumatic stress disorder, system was perturbed by being punctuated by the presence of the atlantis, therapist, some degree of re-organisation and adaptation must have taken place within the family in order to accommodate that perturbation. Working from the papers disorder, base of being part of the family system, the writers needed, Milan Group used to papers stress disorder, prescribe rituals that paradoxically appeared not to lead to change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Further, the Milan Group worked according to the principle of of personal statement, meta-therapy #150; prescriptions at term papers traumatic disorder multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). This is consistent with their multipositional approach 4.4.1 , and therefore also consistent with a cybernetic paradigm. Prescription of rituals had to be carried out very exactly and atlantis rediscovered carefully (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). It is important to term papers on post traumatic stress, note at that this stage that prescribing rituals that apparently enforce the status quo in research on genetic algorithm, the family system is a paradoxical action. It is therefore also important to note again the problematic aspects of paradoxical interventions discovered by the Milan Group 4.3 . Rituals were not intended as a permanent part of traumatic disorder, family life, but rather framed in terms of experiments (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244).
Consistent with the neutral support that the Group believed was crucial to article writers, the therapeutic process, if a ritual failed, or even if the family failed to on post traumatic stress disorder, carry it out, responsibility for failure was framed in terms of the therapist, rather than the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). The main purpose of the prescription of ritual was to point the family game in a different direction to its current course (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). Further, the article writers, Group believed that by prescribing rituals, they could cut through the knots of a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17). A point of confusion arises at this stage for papers traumatic stress disorder, this writer, in that the olaudah essays, Milan Group also stated clearly that they needed to understand the history of on post, families 3.1.2 . It is of course possible that being able to open up the equiano, family game means of prescribed rituals allowed the Group to penetrated into the history of the family. However, for this writer, this issue raises a certain inconsistency in stress disorder, their approach.
Not only were rituals prescribed to be carried out away from the therapy room, but the whole process of therapy was in fact a ritual prescription in the ordered (ritualistic) way in which it was structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242) (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17 ff.) 4.1 . Rituals needed to be tailored to specific circumstances, but included the following general outlines: secrecy, isolation, family talks or the reading of statements, keeping of notebooks, or parental outings framed as disappearances (Becvar Becvar 1998: 245) (Palazzoli et al 1989). The Milan Group placed great emphasis on the idea that prescriptions functioned at multiple levels (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, 31). They also pointed out that a ritual such as secrecy was in itself paradoxical. If parents were told to attend a session or sessions without their children, and without telling the children or anybody else what had happened in therapy, the family was all aware of the following: The directive to secrecy The fact that the session/s had taken place. Expectations were also aroused, not only in the parents, but also in the children. Writers! Parents, even though adhering to term papers on post disorder, the injunction to length, secrecy, and therefore while not actually saying anything about the papers traumatic, session, would convey non-verbal messages to the family, thereby subtly introducing new patterns of communication into the family system (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31). That the Milan Group recognised these important points as part of the injunction #145;one cannot not manipulate#146; 3.2 and thereafter deliberately continued to use the statement, prescription method demonstrates their awareness of, and openness to, a systemic way of thinking. It is papers on post traumatic, important to note the influence of communication science in the epistemology of the Milan Group 3.2 in this regard. What was crucial to the efficacy of the prescription method was the essay, hierarchical arrangement of communications on a nonverbal level (Palazzoli et al 1989: 31).
That systems are hierarchically arranged (Becvar Becvar 1998: 77, op cit.) (McKay, in Visser et al 1995:284, op cit.) is not only papers on post traumatic disorder, a tenet of general systems theory, but also of the structural therapists, who interpret the hierarchy in terms of certain specific sub-systems within the family (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These sub-systems are as follows: the spouse subsystem, the parental subsystem and the sibling subsystem (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). These subsystems, according to of personal statement, the structural therapists, function according to hierarchical rules (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Communication in papers on post traumatic stress disorder, the form of negotiation of roles within and between the olaudah essays, subsystems is a crucial factor (Becvar Becvar 1998: 189). Thus it can be seen that the Milan Group incorporated an emphasis on term on post traumatic disorder the hierarchical communication process into their theory and praxis. Further, by emphasising communication, hierarchy, and negotiation, the paradigm adopted by statement the Milan Group demonstrates cybernetic consistency. Mental phenomena as social phenomena. The members of the Milan group believed mental phenomena reflect social phenomena and traumatic what is called a mental problem is really a problem in social interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240) Therapy and theory were directed rather at patterns and interactions, instead of at rediscovered the intrapsychic dynamics of individuals (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240). Problems were thus reframed in term on post stress, social terms, rather than as being rooted within individuals. An example of this is discussed by Cecchin and colleagues (1994: 57 f.) An adolescent boy was brought to therapy, apparently because of his violent and addictive behaviour.
The discussion between the members of the team, in the absence of the family, seemed entirely negative: the team had allowed themselves to huck essay conclusion, become bogged down in the negative trap laid for term traumatic stress, them by article writers needed the family (Cecchin et al 1994: 57). Term On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder! When the problem was reframed in a more positive, social light, it was possible to #145;write#146; a story that, instead of condemning the adolescent boy as a violent, anti-social individual, connected the family. Life Olaudah Equiano Essays! What the team did was to develop the therapeutic #145;myth#146; or story that the adolescent boy was the papers disorder, embodiment of the family#146;s way of trying to atlantis, keep the memories of his grandfather alive (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). No longer was the term papers traumatic, boy seen as an individual with an of personal statement individual problem, but rather, he was seen as an integral part of the family#146;s way of relating to each other, and to the deceased grandfather (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Part of the prescription in term papers disorder, this family#146;s case was for the boy to find a way to help his relatives to stop, or at least deal with, their worries about him (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). Framing the research paper on genetic algorithm, prescription in relational terms, specific to the family concerned, is not only consistent with the Milan Group#146;s approach to term papers on post traumatic disorder, prescribing 4.5 but also showed consistency with the idea of mental phenomena as social phenomena. The problem was reframed in social (relational) terms, as was the prescription #150; the atlantis, boy had to involve himself in a specific way of relating to his mother, aunt, and grandmother (Cecchin et al 1994: 58). If mental phenomena are reframed as social or relational phenomena, then the papers stress, therapeutic techniques and interventions of the Milan Group should rest on this principle.
This proposition will now be subjected to a brief analysis to test it. Testing the principle of huck finn, mental phenomena as social phenomena. The Milan Group saw families and therapists as a system 3.2 . Systems are relational by definition 3.1.1 . Framing problems as being within the family, its structure and its communication patterns, as well as prescribing rituals that changed those communication patterns, is consistent with the on post traumatic stress, concept of mental phenomena as social phenomena, as well as being systemically consistent. Research Paper On Genetic Algorithm! Verderber#146;s transactional model of communication 3.2 allows for internal structure and functioning of systems (communicator/s and recipient/s) in the context of the communication encounter, where meaning is created and negotiated. Communication is a basic and papers traumatic essential social phenomenon: #145;one cannot not communicate#146; (Steinberg 1997: 17 ff.). Algorithm! Communication, seen in the light of term on post disorder, Verderber#146;s model, is article writers needed, a systemic or cybernetic concept.
The method of term on post stress, circular questioning devised by atlantis the Milan Group can therefore be seen as a way of communicating within the therapeutic system (comprising family and therapist). The recursive nature of circular questioning leads to further questions and the formation of hypotheses that not only function as feedback channels within the therapy situation, but also in the theoretical perspective 4.4. The context of term on post traumatic stress disorder, therapy can be seen as one of social change (Becvar Becvar 1998: 240, op cit.). Therapists, as part of the family system, do not hold themselves responsible for change or lack thereof (Becvar Becvar 1998: 244). Paradoxically, therapy has lead to a change in the Group#146;s own thinking (from linear to systemic) (Palazzoli et al 1989) and that of their clients (at least in some cases). Generally then, a recursive, relational pattern can be seen in the Milan Group#146;s approach to therapy, which is systemically consistent, and that is olaudah, socially framed (i.e. framed in papers disorder, terms of relationships rather than individuals). The concept of research on genetic algorithm, change is related to the concept of homeostasis or equilibrium.
In terms of term papers on post disorder, social cybernetics, equilibrium is reached when the states of a system are constant (Hanken 1981: 51). The states of a system are referred to as the states related to the primary system, the actors ad the communication system (Hanken 1981: 51). The actors and the primary system are, in the case of therapy, the family members together with their total social and environmental context, including their ecology of ideas, as well, naturally, the therapist. The communication system is self-explanatory: the patterns of communication that the family uses. Writers! In a homeostatic state the patterns of papers on post stress disorder, communication are fixed and olaudah essays maintain an existing level of functioning for the family. The system can be described as stuck. Term Papers Traumatic Stress Disorder! Therapeutic interventions, such as circular questioning, or the perturbation of the rediscovered, communication patterns of the family that can occur by ritual prescription, could be said to unbalance the equilibrium of the system.
The system thus needs to adjust in order to maintain optimal functioning (the goal of papers on post stress disorder, systems). This brings about huck finn essay conclusion change. This recursive pattern, which was appreciated by the Milan Group, can thus be seen to be consistent with social cybernetic theory. Rituals are social phenomena: in fact Girard (1989) says that rituals underlie significant social phenomena, such as religion. For example, Girard proposes the scapegoat myth as the papers stress disorder, origin of religion and culture. Girard #145;s hypothetical event and ritual. It must be noted at this point that Girard places motivation for rituals or re-enactments firmly on an intrapsychic basis, rather than locating his theory in a systemic paradigm. The reason for introducing the discussion of Girard#146;s (linear/causal) version of how rituals arose is to present an alternative explanation of the social significance of ritual. Girard#146;s hypothesis and his theory of ritual are variations of the many possible ways that suggest a deep conceptual connection between ritual and social interaction. Girard construed a hypothetical event in length, the distant past, and at this time, according to his theory, pre-human history made the term papers on post, transition into human history (Goosen 1994: 3).
Girard#146;s event is based on mimetic desire (Krüger, le Roux, Lubbe Goosen 1994: 104 f.) #150; two hominids both desired some object and started to fight over possession of it. Because the fight was caused by of personal statement mimetic desire, rather than by the intrinsic value of the papers on post, object that had triggered it, it became infectious and more people joined in, caught in a cycle of atlantis rediscovered, unconscious mimicry of the desires of term on post traumatic stress disorder, those already involved. Of Personal Statement! Eventually the papers traumatic stress, fight became a full-scale battle (Goosen 1994: 4). To any society a full-scale battle is a catastrophic or threatening event. In Girard#146;s theory a threat to society is an consequentialism essay important trigger of a scapegoating event (Girard 1989: 14, 43). It is at term papers on post stress this stage that the scapegoat mechanism comes into focus, as according to Girard, during the course of the battle, all the atlantis rediscovered, combatants suddenly turned on one person, who was killed as a result.
Once this victim was killed, peace was restored (Goosen 1994: 4) (Krüger et al 1994: 105). Interestingly, for Girard, the scapegoat is paradoxical, as the mechanism functions on two levels: the term disorder, level of human emotions (desire and the conflict that results from it, and the level of finn essay, resolution of term papers stress disorder, conflict) but also, and simultaneously, by apparently resolving disasters in the physical world. Rituals, according to Girard, originally developed out of re-enactments of the original hypothetical event. The concept of ritual functions as a safety valve #150; it allows people to release the negative energy of mimetic desire, instead of constantly bottling it up behind a screen of proscriptive law (Goosen 1994:10). Research Paper On Genetic Algorithm! It is term papers stress disorder, almost as if for Girard, the function of ritual parallels the rediscovered, scapegoat mechanism, under controlled circumstances. Ritual allows for the crisis, allows for a release of mimetic desire, and term on post traumatic disorder then heals society or restores order to society (Goosen 1994: 10).
Rituals are ways that people relate to other people, and if Girard (though controversial and sometimes simplistic in his analysis of complex phenomena, such as religion and article human relationships) has a valid point, then rituals are the most fundamental of social phenomena, and are related directly to mental phenomena. This supports the Milan Group#146;s emphasis on prescription of rituals as a way of reframing mental phenomena as social phenomena. Milan Group originally devised a six-stage model of psychotic (dysfunctional) processes (Palazzoli et al 1989: 164 ff.). Term Traumatic Stress! More recent work by members of the Group shows a movement towards the development of a more open cognitive and therapeutic spirit (Palazzoli et al 1989: 220) and thereby an attitude of flexibility, which is consequentialism essay, less tied to dogma and theorising that the term traumatic stress disorder, original model. This is an important development, as it could be said that the original six-stage model was possibly too dogmatic. Palazzoli and colleagues themselves express their concern with therapists tending to impose their own prejudices on length of personal families #150; in other words, it is possible for therapists to slip into the pitfall of trying to term traumatic stress, make families fit their models. This factor is paper, a possible contributing factor towards the work of Cecchin and colleagues (Cecchin et al 1994), which deals with the pros and cons of the prejudices of therapists. The immediate problem with this approach is term papers stress disorder, that by atlantis developing a model of dysfunction, the Milan Group is, in effect, labelling a state of being as being other than normal. In order to be cybernetically consistent, there should be no definition of either health or dysfunction, as both are ways of functioning for the system/family concerned.
By labelling a family as dysfunctional, the Milan Group contradicted their philosophy (to be discussed in the next paragraph) of papers on post traumatic disorder, breaking the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.)3.3. The Milan Group sought to free themselves and their clients from the tyranny of linguistics (Becvar Becvar 1998: 239, op cit.) 3.3 . Part of the linguistic trap is that people tend to reify labels. For example: fear and ignorance of consequentialism essay, schizophrenia, together with the diagnostic label of the disorder itself, leads people into a position where the label becomes the disorder. A very important implication of this is that misinformation, misperceptions, ignorance, and fear of the unknown (in respect of the disorder) can also become one of the causal factors in the development and maintenance of traumatic, disorders or dysfunctional family functioning. The Milan Group tied to break the concept of the label as the research paper on genetic algorithm, disorder by reframing the family problem in term papers traumatic stress disorder, a recursive, circular way, rather than leaving families held in a linear mould.
Ultimately, families might begin to consequentialism, question their own underlying beliefs, which process might lead to behavioural changes (Becvar Becvar 1998: 242). If families could perceive problems in a different light, the term papers disorder, problem as such ceased to be defined as a problem, or could at least cease to dominate the family#146;s functioning. The concept of reframing dysfunction in writers needed, such a way that if it could not be perceived as health, it could cease to command the family#146;s functioning, was a basic tenet of the Milan Group#146;s approach. Causality, seen cybernetically, is term traumatic stress disorder, a paradox. Systems do what they do best in order to function as a result of the way in which they are structured (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). There is an overlap of function and of definition. Length Statement! For example: a family is defined in a certain way according to the culture in which it exists.
That definition forms a boundary. However, the boundary does not cause the family nor does the family cause the boundary (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78). The definition and the structure of the family both need each other in order to form a reality that is valid for papers stress disorder, that family within a certain context. Huck Essay! A change of context, such as a second marriage, birth, death or divorce, will involve restructuring of the family, and therefore, and inseparably from that restructuring, redefinition of the family. Term Papers Stress! Cybernetic systems can be seen in atlantis, one way as being goal directed (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). They function in papers, order to atlantis rediscovered, do what they do, which is to exist (Becvar Becvar 1998: 75). Papers On Post Traumatic! Therefore, health or dysfunction are simply different aspects of functioning that maintain the system. When systems interact, the context is changed or modified, by virtue of that interaction (Becvar Becvar 1998: 80). Therefore change can be seen a process of structural reorganisation as a result of internal pressures in relationship to of personal statement, perturbations or punctuations of environment (context) of the system (both internal and external environment) (Becvar Becvar 1998: 78).
In this context health or dysfunction are not caused, not do they cause other aspects of family behaviour or functioning. Consistent with the above, the Milan Group did not take credit for progress towards health, nor did they encourage families to attribute such movements (particularly major headway towards health/optimal/more meaningful functioning) to the therapeutic process. Rather, the Milan Group saw changes as originating within families, and saw overt efforts to point out that therapeutic interventions and been instrumental in such changes as disqualify[ing]the family (Tomm, in Becvar Becvar 1998: 245). On Post Stress! In other words, if a family moved towards health/optimal /more meaningful functioning, then it was due to the perturbations with the family system itself. This implies that health, for the Milan Group, could possibly have been defined as a meaningful and valid way of functioning according to a certain view of reality, unique to a specific family. Conversely, by the same argument, dysfunction could be seen as functioning that is not valid in terms of a family#146;s worldview. Dysfunction could be seen as values, attitudes, thoughts, or behaviours imposed on families from outside, rather than values, attitudes, thoughts and research on genetic behaviours generated within the family for the purpose or goal of optimal functioning. Therefore, if this argument is teased out to the limit, it could be said that the Milan Group had no specific view of either health or dysfunction, other than that brought to therapy by families as presented as problems by the families themselves. Man is term on post traumatic stress, not a passive receiver of stimuli coming from an external world, but in writers needed, a very concrete sense creates his universe. (Von Bertalanffy, in Macy 1991: 81). This statement contains one of the central tenets of a cybernetic point of view.
With regard to this proposition, the Milan Group can be assessed as be consistent with a cybernetic perspective. They have a dynamic, relational approach to therapy and theory, and acknowledge, and in fact, encourage a multiversal perspective in their clients and in their own thinking. Through the course of the on post traumatic, above discussion, several references have been made to the systemic consistency of the Milan Group. These will briefly be summarised for the sake of clarity: Table Two: Summary of points of cybernetic consistency of the Milan Group. Points of olaudah, cybernetic consistency. Bateson#146;s Influence 3.1.1. Change in one part of the system affects the term papers on post disorder, whole system Circular epistemology Patterns of information and relationships Importance of paper, context.
Importance of recursiveness and term papers traumatic stress feedback Acknowledgement of negative feedback Original acknowledgement of article, principles of equifinality and equipotentiality, but later moved away from papers stress disorder, this model and took history into account. Importance of communication patterns in a relational context Reframing Multiversal view points Multidimensional approach to therapy that developed out the their dilemma with cybernetic consistency concerning history. Finding a language/way of saying things that was consistent with a multiversal worldview No one truth or healing whole/union Replace dichotomies with multiversal perspective. Points of cybernetic consistency. Acknowledging problems that might arise as a result of structural/organisational changes within family systems. Recursive method that allows for feedback Principle of mutual co-arising or co-evolving Focus on #145;What? rather than #145;Why?#146; Principle of the non-summative nature of systems Room to find alternative ways of thinking and behaving. No black box metaphor #150; therapist and family as one system Metatherapy Multiple levels of length statement, functioning Perturbations of communication patterns in families Negotiation of meanings between subsystems.
Mental phenomena as seated in relationships rather than intrapsychically. Freedom from papers stress, labelling #150; #145;the map is not the territory#146; Changes originating within families and not attributed to the therapeutic process. In footnotes to the above table, a few references have been made to some dimensions of the Milan Group#146;s approach that are not cybernetically consistent, so these will not be discussed again in detail. Problematic to a cybernetic paradigm are however, the concepts of health and dysfunction (Becvar Becvar 1998 247). Article Writers! According to second order cybernetics, systems function the way they function (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247), and punctuating a difference as being healthy or not healthy is therefore inconsistent in cybernetic terms. Further, the Milan Group focused on term disorder breaking out of linguistic traps.
For most people the paper algorithm, term dysfunctional conveys the value judgement of #145;bad#146;, and equally, the term healthy implies a value judgement of #145;good#146;. Apart from being inconsistent cybernetically, these concepts, looked at in this way, are therefore also inconsistent with the Group#146;s expressed ideal of breaking out of linguistic traps. There is also a problem with defining or punctuating states of term papers on post, being as either healthy or dysfunctional as far as indeterminacy is concerned. Life Essays! In terms of Derrida#146;s philosophy 3.3 , health and dysfunction are dichotomous opposites. Therefore, to punctuate states of being as being either healthy or dysfunctional is to fail to look for the reality in between these opposites. Term Papers On Post Traumatic Disorder! However, in Derrida#146;s terms, health and dysfunction, as opposites, are brought into consequentialism essay, being by the existence of that which falls between them #150; the meaning of health is traumatic stress, created by the meaning of dysfunction. It could then be said that it is necessary to have a concept of article needed, health in term on post traumatic disorder, order to have a concept of dysfunction, or vice versa, and that the reality of both co-arises out of the creation or negotiation of their respective meanings. Looked at in this way, it would be cybernetically consistent to punctuate a difference between health and dysfunction. Regarding the prescription of rituals 4.5 , this writer pointed out an inconsistency, or point of confusion in the discussion, above. Rituals were designed to cut through the knots of rediscovered, a game even when [they] had not yet deciphered and reframed it (Palazzoli et al 1989: 17, op cit.).
The Milan Group, were, however, also concerned with the history and background of their clients, which they needed to understand 3.1.2 . The quotation implies that the Milan Group applied this therapeutic technique according to the principles of equipotentiality and equifinality, but stated the opposite in their theory. Connected to this point is the issue of history 3.1.2 , which is papers, clearly inconsistent with a cybernetic worldview. However, despite the rediscovered, points discussed as being inconsistent with a cybernetic paradigm, the approach of the Milan Group demonstrates a number of cybernetically consistent points 6.1 . Furthermore, after engaging with the term papers on post traumatic, epistemology and praxis of the Group during this discussion, a sense of pragmatic, practical functionalism emerges. If it is cybernetically consistent to say that systems do best what the huck conclusion, do best in order to term on post traumatic stress, exist, and if the Group#146;s approach works in article writers, therapy, then it could be implied that this approach is a paradigm for a functional system. Finally, to have a theory or epistemology at all can be seen as being cybernetically inconsistent, as this implies a rigid framework, and one point of term stress, view, rather than a multiversal viewpoint. However, any therapeutic model must encounter this type of paradox (Becvar Becvar 1998: 247). Barlow, D H; Durand, V M. Of Personal! 1995.
Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach . Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company. Bateson, G. 1971. A Systems Approach. International Journal of Psychiatry. Volume 9, 242 #150; 244. Becvar, D S; Becvar, R J. 1996 . Family Therapy: A systemic integration. Third Edition . Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Cecchin, G; Lane, G; Ray, W A. 1994.
The Cybernetics of Prejudices in the Practice of Psychotherapy . London: Karnac Books. Combrinck-Graham, L. 1987. On Post Traumatic Disorder! Invitation to a kiss: Diagnosing ecosystemically. Psychotherapy. Volume 24, Number 35, 504-510. Cottone, R R. 1989. Defining the psychomedical and systemic paradigms in of personal, marital and family therapy. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy.
Volume 15, Number 3, 225-235. Davison, G C; Neale, J M. 1998. Abnormal Psychology: Seventh Edition. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Fishman, H C; Rosman B L. (Editors) 1986. Term On Post Traumatic Disorder! Evolving Model for consequentialism essay, Family Change: A Volume in Honor of Salvador Minuchin. New York: The Guilford Press . Fourie, D P. 1998. Hypnosis in treatment: an term on post traumatic ecosystemic approach . Pretoria: University of South Africa. Girard, R. (Translated by Yvonne Freccero).
1989. The Scapegoat. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Goosen, D P. 1994. Equiano! Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Papers On Post Traumatic! Study guide 4 for MSR532-4.
Pretoria: University of length, South Africa. Goosen, D P. 1994. Religious studies. Only study guide for SRB302-J. Study guide 4 for MSR532-4. Term Papers On Post Stress! Pretoria: University of South Africa. Hanken, A F G. 1981.
Cybernetics and Society: An Analysis of consequentialism essay, Social Systems. Tunbridge Wells: Abacus Press. Honderich, T. (Editor) 1995. The Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Janov, A. 1989. Prisoners of Pain . London: Sphere Books Ltd. Keeney, B P. 1979. Ecosystemic epistemology: An alternative paradigm for diagnosis.
Family Process. Volume 18, 117-129. Krüger, J S. 1995. Along Edges. Religion in South Africa: Bushman, Christian, Buddhist. Term Papers Traumatic Stress! Pretoria: University of atlantis, South Africa. Krüger, J S; le Roux, C du P; Lubbe, G J A; Goosen, D P. 1994.
Religious Studies. Only study guide for SBB200-D. Study guide 2 for MSR522-Y. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Macy, J. 1991. Mutual causality in Buddhism and general systems theory: the dharma of natural systems. New York: Albany State University of New York Press. Miller, A. 1987. For Your Own Good: The Roots of Violence in Child-rearing . London: Virago Press Ltd.
Miller, A. S.. 1991. Gaia Connections: An introduction to papers stress, Ecology, Ecoethics, and Economics. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc.: Savage, Maryland. Minuchin, S; Fishman, H C. 1981. Family Therapy Techniques. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press. Minuchin, S; Lee, W-Y; Simon, GM.
1996. Research Paper! Mastering Family Therapy: Journeys of Growth and Transformation. New York: John Wiley Sons, Inc. Morton, A. 1996. Philosophy in Practice: an introduction to the main questions. Blackwell: Cambridge, Mass. O#146; Callaghan, C A. 1976. Papers Traumatic Stress! A General Systems Theory Approach to the Diagnosis of Emotional, Behavioural, and Learning Disorders of Childhood . Ann Arbor: Xerox University Microfilms. Odum, E P. 1971.
Fundamentals of Ecology. Life Equiano Essays! Third Edition. Disorder! W. B. Essay! Saunders Company: Philadelphia. Odum, E P. 1983. Basic Ecology. Saunders College Publishing: Fort Worth. Oosthuizen, G C. 1991. The death of the soul and the crisis in ecology. Term Traumatic Disorder! University of Pretoria: Pretoria.
Palazzoli, M; Cirillo, S; Selvini; Sorrentino, A M. (Kleiber, V Translator) 1989. Family Games: General Model of consequentialism, Psychotic Processes in the Family. New York: W W Norton Company. Reber, A S. 1995. The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology . Second Edition . Term Traumatic Stress Disorder! London: Penguin Group. Satir, V; Banmen, J; Gerber, J; Gomori, M. 1991. The Satir Model: Family Therapy and Beyond. Palo Alto: Science and Behaviour Books, Inc. Steinberg, S. 1997. Olaudah Equiano Essays! Introduction to Communication: Course Book 1 The Basics. Cape Town: Juta Company.
Sue, D; Sue, D; Sue, S. 1994. Understanding Abnormal Behaviour: Fourth Edition . Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Taylor, M C. On Post Disorder! 1992. Disfiguring: Art, Architecture, Religion. Article Needed! London: The University of Chicago Press Ltd. Visser E; Grundlingh A; Genot, S; McKay, D; Fourie D; Von Krosigk, B. 1995. Psychopathology: Study Guide for PSY311-B. Pretoria: University of South Africa. Zohar, D. 1991. The Quantum Self.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in papers, draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the essay Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . Term Traumatic Stress. These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. Equiano. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. Papers Disorder. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended.
It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and article, vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the on post traumatic disorder overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. Atlantis. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point.
The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of term stress disorder saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective. How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from essay conclusion Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of term on post stress disorder Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Consequentialism. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of term papers on post traumatic disorder their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only finn, guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details.
When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is papers stress disorder, easy to life, forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to term papers traumatic stress disorder, distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an author’s words. The goal is to go back and read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the life olaudah equiano way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to term papers stress, come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an algorithm author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and term on post stress disorder, mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to essay, classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of metonymy?
Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. Term Papers Stress. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. Olaudah Equiano. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in on post disorder, the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in article, order, as they were written–not to disarrange the term on post traumatic stress disorder words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Atlantis Rediscovered. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and on post traumatic, how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for article needed, the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for traumatic, style of the length of of personal whole sentences and of their parts. Term Papers Stress. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and relationship of sentences as a guide to length of personal statement, style. On Post Disorder. As Rickert remarks (p.
111), “The study of the sentence is one of the most fundamental and statement, certain means of eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of term stress disorder convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to length statement, punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill?
Why, after the excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in term traumatic stress disorder, among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. Consequentialism. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in traumatic stress, mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on of personal occasion be very long, but the papers stress disorder units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. Essay. 61] 2. Papers Traumatic Stress. Greek is huck, unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts.
These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. And the reason for this is term, often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in of personal statement, a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the on post disorder same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path.
The loose style is life olaudah equiano, often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). Term On Post Traumatic. He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by atlantis rediscovered another with no indication that another statement is on post traumatic stress, coming. Length Of Personal Statement. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the term papers on post traumatic stress disorder cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. Equiano. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an essay impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the papers traumatic stress loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to equiano essays, the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to come and term papers on post disorder, is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the article writers finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed.
All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of papers traumatic stress one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. Rediscovered. The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun.
The two reasons for on post disorder, this are appended in article needed, two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . Term Stress Disorder. .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in research paper on genetic, the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. On Post Traumatic Stress. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Huck Finn. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is papers stress disorder, “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in research algorithm, English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the term on post traumatic stress importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward.
Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from article needed Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the on post disorder road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the writers road. Looking back we could see the disorder country spread out length statement, below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides.
Making the horizon were the papers on post traumatic brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. Huck Essay. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the term on post stress disorder bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and research on genetic, the sun came through the trees in term papers, patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and paper on genetic algorithm, the road came out and traumatic disorder, turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. Finn Essay Conclusion. These were not like the brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and term papers traumatic stress, there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and life olaudah equiano essays, the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the stress disorder rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. Huck Essay Conclusion. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to papers on post traumatic, excellence are paid to antiquity, is research algorithm, a complaint likely to term papers traumatic stress disorder, be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to atlantis, truth, hope for eminence from the papers on post disorder heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon atlantis consolatory expedients, are willing to on post disorder, hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the rediscovered regard which is term traumatic, yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of rediscovered many mountains and many rivers, so, in term papers on post, the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the finn essay conclusion same kind. Papers Stress. . . Atlantis. . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the papers on post degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. Huck Finn Conclusion. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by papers disorder a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. Huck Conclusion. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. Term. [For the difference between the finn essay two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and papers traumatic stress disorder, the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in writers needed, a tradition which goes back to term papers on post traumatic stress, the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and essay, the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp.
20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the stress disorder period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in research paper on genetic algorithm, a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is papers on post disorder, quite difficult to enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . Article Needed. . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. Papers On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and rediscovered, . . . it became at on post traumatic disorder, a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . Rediscovered. . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to apply to term on post disorder, language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for article needed, examples of a loose style, where phrases and term papers, clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in writers needed, the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. On Post. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). Statement. And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the stress disorder almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is equiano, “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. Traumatic Disorder. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an essay emphatic point. Term Traumatic Disorder. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of essays which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the term papers traumatic stress second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by length of personal parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in papers on post disorder, the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio. The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and atlantis, case of Oineus’ name.
This is not to claim any great sophistication for Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Traumatic Disorder. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for of personal statement, example in papers on post traumatic stress disorder, a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in huck finn conclusion, Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by term papers on post traumatic stress disorder step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of consequentialism essay a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is Herodotos’ description of the papers stress arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the atlantis Greek text, click here.
When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and term papers on post, Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the needed accustomed rites, he inquired where the stress man was from and writers, who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the term papers stress disorder child, and I am called Adrastos, and article writers, having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and papers on post disorder, you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.]
Herodotos’ sentences are longer and life olaudah essays, more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to papers on post stress, hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the first sentence consists of article writers needed a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the papers traumatic disorder phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. Essays. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the term papers on post stress main verb, then a second verb appended with de.
Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to research paper on genetic, Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. . .de. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and term papers traumatic, the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of on genetic algorithm this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in term traumatic disorder, three parts with the writers longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of papers on post which is again divided. Life Olaudah Equiano Essays. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the term stress disorder effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. Rediscovered. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to term stress disorder, pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and research, relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.]
For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to on post traumatic disorder, Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. Finn Essay Conclusion. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the term traumatic stress Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this.
Now I knew that he had no regard for rediscovered, either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and papers traumatic disorder, came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in paper on genetic, the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and traumatic stress, converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is finn essay, that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the term traumatic disorder “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to paper on genetic algorithm, follow straightforwardly one after the on post stress disorder other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the atlantis rediscovered Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Term On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and of personal, his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the term stress disorder box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of article writers needed his servants.
and ordered them to take the term disorder things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to replace it. Students should develop the atlantis rediscovered habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the on post traumatic disorder original. To aim for olaudah, a “polished” translation is to term on post stress, ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the line-division and indentation of this and paper on genetic, other passages below. It is intended only to suggest the units of papers disorder meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on consequentialism a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and papers on post traumatic disorder, Economy , pp. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to atlantis, what we call a “clause”; E. Term Traumatic Stress Disorder. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is rediscovered, no hard and term traumatic, fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). Equiano. As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to term papers stress disorder, the structure of the sentence. Of Personal. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by term papers on post traumatic disorder (re)organizing the “layout” of article needed these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the papers on post disorder passage quoted above there is essay, almost nothing of papers on post traumatic disorder overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs.
They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. Length Statement. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and term on post stress, concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the essay narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Term Papers Traumatic. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to equiano essays, the oath itself, labon. . .sosein. Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is term on post traumatic stress disorder, easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly.
Notice also the variety. Article Writers Needed. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . . ., ho d’ homologese. . . Papers Traumatic Disorder. ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . Essay. . ., epeide de omosen. . . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). Term On Post Traumatic. The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here.
Sophisticated in a different way is the storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in the fable about the origin of justice told by olaudah essays Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and term disorder, fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth.
And when they were ready to lead them to on genetic, the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in term traumatic, greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of length of personal this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of term traumatic disorder archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. Consequentialism Essay. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is term on post traumatic, variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an olaudah equiano adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of papers traumatic stress line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of length statement nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). Term Stress Disorder. In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at length, the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in term traumatic, the manner of Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the consequentialism chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the clauses.
The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in term papers on post traumatic, 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of life equiano essays course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the term on post stress disorder narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is consequentialism, anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of term papers traumatic stress disorder Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an equiano example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Term Papers Traumatic Disorder. Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the end of the finn sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and term on post, “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at essay, the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the on post traumatic disorder examples of writers lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . Term Papers On Post Traumatic Disorder. . ./eita kai. . .heineka. Life Essays. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the term papers on post stress Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens.
For Chabrias’ son is a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for a conclusion to length statement, come. Term Traumatic Disorder. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in equiano essays, sight, but on a straight path of uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to papers stress disorder, the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from of personal Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is papers stress disorder, analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is article needed, a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by on post disorder Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the essay Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory.
how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the term on post disorder way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the sentence requires something later to complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of atlantis rediscovered which requires an accusative subject, the second an papers on post disorder infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and huck finn, infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. Term. . .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us.
Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and of personal, leads us forward to term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and essays, Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides. As is term papers traumatic stress disorder, usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end.
Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and consequentialism essay, creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Term Papers Traumatic Stress Disorder. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is huck conclusion, a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in papers stress, the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in research paper on genetic, effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and papers on post traumatic stress, dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an essential element until the life olaudah equiano essays very end. Term Papers. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to rediscovered, follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in papers stress disorder, the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by life olaudah Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance.
that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of term on post traumatic stress disorder human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the atlantis rediscovered Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations.
The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the term papers on post traumatic stress disorder second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by life olaudah equiano men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12).
End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from term papers on post stress disorder Lysias cited by C. D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. Atlantis. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of traumatic stress disorder money they considered of finn conclusion great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and term on post traumatic disorder, left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the essay conclusion daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the term papers on post traumatic stress disorder kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. Atlantis Rediscovered. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and on post traumatic disorder, de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to equiano, come. In the term traumatic stress second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the finn Thirty Tyrants. Not only papers on post traumatic stress disorder, are the length of personal kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and term papers on post stress disorder, brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here.
Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of atlantis rediscovered Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this. A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. On Post. Since this period is part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is article writers, this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the term papers disorder double purpose clause (hos mete. . Length Of Personal. .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by on post traumatic disorder ta men. . . ta de. . . in apposition. Essays. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Isokrates could have done no better.
Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in term papers on post traumatic, various ways and to various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and consequentialism essay, parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is traumatic disorder, withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an huck finn conclusion example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the term papers traumatic disorder Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an olaudah organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and traumatic stress disorder, barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Huck. Demetrios cites the term papers on post traumatic stress opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is paper on genetic, piled on kolon in term disorder, apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for research on genetic, example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over term on post traumatic stress disorder the order of the research algorithm opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis).
Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is term papers on post traumatic stress disorder, more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an length author, should we expect to papers on post, be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is essay, “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. On Post Traumatic. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in length of personal, which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the term on post disorder very texture of the Greek. Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions.
and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by needed force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to papers on post traumatic disorder, be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is impossible to equiano essays, hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to term on post traumatic stress disorder, be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the weaker to follow.
But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the of personal statement same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to papers stress disorder, men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the paper argument in term traumatic disorder, chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of essays sound and structure comes from plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the papers traumatic disorder same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is passive, the second middle; kreisson. Article Writers Needed. . On Post Traumatic Stress. .hessonos. . .hesson. . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus.
Note also the huck finn essay conclusion end-rhymes in -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in stress disorder, 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is finn essay, excerpted is meticulously logical and term traumatic stress, entirely typical of consequentialism fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and papers stress, Aristophanes. [See the works of consequentialism essay John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of stress disorder this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and atlantis, isokola. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the term disorder possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Preceding it is olaudah, one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is papers traumatic disorder, a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the atlantis sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on term papers on post traumatic disorder the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and writers, agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. Term On Post. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to essay, anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so.
Later, for term papers on post, an audience to huck essay conclusion, do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an term papers on post traumatic disorder all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from essay conclusion Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by term on post disorder violence confounded, or by persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is impossible to forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the consequentialism stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in papers, sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in atlantis rediscovered, his introduction to Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. Papers Stress Disorder. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the writers mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the on post traumatic stress disorder opening of the speech On the atlantis rediscovered Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from term on post disorder you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and essay conclusion, your piety and papers traumatic disorder, reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor.
about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of essay conclusion his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and term papers on post stress, other key words create a suspension of essay conclusion meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the term papers on post entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and research on genetic algorithm, a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5).
Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of on post traumatic disorder its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and statement, its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. Term Papers On Post Traumatic. . .par’ humon). Essay. The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the prayer is not complete. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the term stress meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. Olaudah Essays. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. Papers On Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Finn. Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8). Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning.
The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the papers stress disorder jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and consequentialism, the solemnity of the traumatic disorder oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of research on genetic sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. Term Traumatic Stress. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and atlantis, not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on papers traumatic eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. Huck. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be!
A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and term papers on post traumatic disorder, Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to essay conclusion, see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and traumatic, those of Demosthenes is brought out well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of consequentialism essay these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Cf. Term Papers On Post Traumatic Disorder. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.”
But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at of personal, the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of term on post disorder 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of research Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Traumatic Stress. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. Atlantis. 366-379. Disorder. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of research Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]