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Australian Aborigines’ culture essay. It is known that kinship system is considered to be a fundamental principle of organizing people into different social groups, where they perform different roles. As this form of organization which is based on parentage and character first, marriage can be found in every human society, kinship system is of great importance. Illustration. Today, in modern industrial communities family structures are rather weakened because of the dominance of the market economy and the activity of social services. However, any nuclear family household which can be found in character any society is still the basic institution that is responsible for rearing children and organizing consumption. (Nowak Laird, 2010, p.10) In some nonindustrial contexts, kinship system normally has a greater number of functions. In this case, kinship units usually serve as the main units of production, representation of political authority and even as religious structures for the worship of spiritual beings, who are themselves considered to be the members of the kinship system. Kinship systems in foraging and horticultural based societies provide support for illustration essay, people in all stages of their life. My goal in this paper is to identify and describe the kinship system of Australian Aborigines’ culture. AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL KINSHIP SYSTEM AND ITS MEANING. According to character grade, the anthropological data, Australian aboriginal kinship is one of the most complex kinship systems in the world. Some experts consider that it is the basis of all social interaction.
It is social psychology format found that the kinship system of any particular tribe can control and maintain the network of interpersonal relationships in the tribe and book report grade, direct its members in their interactions with other members of the tribe. Moreover, Australian Aboriginal kinship is not only the system of law which governs social interactions, such as marriage, in traditional Australian Aboriginal culture, it is also an integral part of the culture of every Aboriginal group located on the territory of Australia. Social Psychology Essay. THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL KINSHIP. Aboriginal kinship system of Australia has the book first, following characteristic features: As kinship is an integral part of the social organization, the tribal members are divided into several categories with special names used in each tribe. The relatives-in-law take place in the same categories as consanguine relatives. The husbands and wives are related to each other as kin.
In aboriginal Australia, classificatory kinship is used. For example, if a man or a woman addresses another man or woman with a particular kin term he or she will use the same kin term for his full brother or sister. The status of mother’s brother and social psychology format, father’s sister is a so-called extension of the sibling relationship because it has some special obligations and responsibilities in nearly all Australian Aboriginal societies. Such people often have an important part in report first grade the rituals of their brother’s son or daughter, or sister’s son or daughter. Moreover, there is always some attachment in the relationship between a man and detente cold, his father’s sister. However, there are taboos between the man and the wives or husbands of these kin.
The basic kinship in aboriginal Australia is the nuclear family. However, aboriginal kin system allows both men and women “to have extra-marital sexual partners during some transient-mundane or transient-ritual or even romantic basis”. In some areas of Australia, for example in character book the Dieri, the provision of secondary wives can be found and in western Arnhem Land, the provision of secondary husbands can be found. Afghanistan. (Monroe, 2010, para.4) SOME FACTS ABOUT AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL CULTURE. It is known that Australian aboriginal culture is character report one of the oldest living cultures in on basketball the world. Its main peculiarity is that it is closely connected with nature. According to book first grade, the traditional aboriginal belief system, nature and landscape are of the same importance as the Bible in ethnographic essays Christian world. Book First. The Australian aborigines worship prominent rocks and canyons, rivers and waterfalls, sun and moon, and, of course, animals – they are all sacred. As aboriginal Australia consists of hundreds of tribal divisions and language groups with different cultural practices, it is impossible to describe all of them. However, it is easy to evaluation, identify the main common features of their cultures.
First of all, different practices and ceremonies play an important role in the life of character first grade, aborigines. Secondly, the belief systems of Australian aborigines are based on spiritual values, including Rainbow Serpent, the main ancestral being, Baiame and Bunjil, the main creator spirits. Besides, music and evaluation, art are unique in character book report first grade aboriginal Australia.(Monroe, 2010, para.3) The kinship system impacts the way this culture behaves. For example, numerous ceremonies are conducted by certain kin members, one of them is Bora, an initiation ceremony when aboriginal boys become men. One more example is participation in music festivals when the Arnhem Land people (only men) play Yolngu. Also, the Djabwurrung and Jardwadjali people of western Victoria participate in the traditional game of Marn Grook, a type of football played only by men from different groups.
In our society, kinship also plays an important role. Kinship can impact individual’s behavior and actions. The Basseri of Iran. At the same time, it is not only kinship that affects the cultural development of the society. In this regard, it is possible to refer to the Basseri of Iran, the tribe that has undergone considerable changes in the course of its history, especially during the 20th century resulting in considerable social, economic and political changes within the tribe.
The Basseri of Iran are a pastoral, nomadic tribe in Iran. However, today, the Basseri have started to change their traditional lifestyle, social and psychology, political system. Consistent changes in contemporary Iran affected substantially the Basseri tribe. In fact, today, the Basseri undergo considerable changes that have already changed their role in the political life of character book report first grade, Iran. In addition, today, the Basseri undergo consistent social changes that affect the structure of their tribe and divine in philosophy study, social relations with the book first, tribe as well as the lifestyle of the Basseri. First of all, it is important to place emphasis on the fact that the traditional social system of the Basseri was grounded on tents. A tent is essays a basic social unit of Basseri. The leader of the report first grade, tent deals with the cornell divine study, formal officers of the tribe, villagers and other strangers. However, today, the tribes have disintegrated into small segments without powerful tribal chiefs (Amanolahi, 2003, p.268). Character Book Report Grade. Therefore, the Basseri tribe has started to fell apart since the first half of the 20th century, whereas today this process has become even stronger. This trend is the result of the shift from the nomadic lifestyle to sedentarization.
The Basseri is a traditional, nomadic tribe but the Basseri were forcefully sedentarized in their summer and winter territories in 1936. One of the major consequences of forced sedentarizzation was that, with the tribesmen no longer mobile, it became easy for the state to supervise their activities (Amanolahi, 2003, p.270). Along with the change of the traditional lifestyle of the Basseri, the social essay format, tribe has undergone consistent social changes that have been already mentioned above. The tribe could not exist anymore as the nomadic tribe and its traditional social structure has started to character first grade, change because the Basseri stayed in their settlements that slowed down their communication between different segments of the tribe. Each segment has started to essay contest, develop as an independent unit of the tribe and the close connections that existed within the tribe have weakened under the impact of the character book report first, sedentarization of the tribe. On Curriculum Evaluation. At the same time, the tribe has virtually stopped its nomadic lifestyle.
Therefore, the Basseri had to develop absolutely new lifestyle, including new socioeconomic activities. The tribe could not maintain its pastoral, nomadic lifestyle and should focus on character new socioeconomic activities, which in their turn affected consistently the social stratification of essays evaluation, segments of the tribe as leaders of tents grew richer compared to other members of the tribe. The traditional exchange of products between the Basseri and sedentary population of character book report first grade, Iran changed too because the Basseri became similar to the rest of the sedentary population of Iran and lost its nomadic traditions. Structural changes in social psychology essay social and economic life of the Basseri led to book report first grade, the degradation of the Basseri tribe as independent tribe within Iran. Instead, the tribe has started its close assimilation into the Iranian society because segments of the Basseri tribe, being weakened by the sedentarization could not resist to the impact of the mainstream Iranian culture. Furthermore, the process of on basketball, urbanization has reduced the traditional political power of the pastoral nomads that they no longer play their traditional political role (Amanolahi, 2003, p.268).
The urbanization was the effect of socioeconomic changes in Iran. As Iranian economy progress and became more and character book report first, more industrialized, the agriculture started to lose its role as the main branch of the national economy. In addition, such tribes as the Basseri had to change their lifestyle to ethnographic essays, survive in the competitive economic struggle. Many Basseri had to settle in cities and towns, where they could find some job and survive, while traditional lifestyle put them on the edge of survival. As the character book report first, Basseri tribe has become segmented and weakened by essay the sedentarization and urbanization, its political power has started to decrease too. The pastoral nomads have lost not only their political power in relation to the central government, but their social organization and report, their way of life have changed radically (Amanolahi, 2003, p.269). As a result, today, the Basseri comprise an integral part of Iranian society with low impact on essays the political life of the country. They cannot lead the character book report first, traditional nomadic lifestyle any more. Therefore, they have lost their political power as a solid and influential tribe.
The Basseri tribe is just falling apart that naturally weakens its political and economic power, while, in a long-run perspective, the tribe is cornell essay religion study likely to face the problem of the full assimilation into the mainstream Iranian culture to the extent that the Basseri can lose their cultural and national identity. Character Report First Grade. In conclusion, it is necessary to say that today anthropologists are greatly interested in the comparative study of kinship systems in order to discover some universal patterns and the variable forms that they take in specific societies. In this respect, the essays, experience of the study of the Basseri is particularly noteworthy for the Basseri have undergone considerable changes in character book grade the course of the social essay, 20th century. The forced sedentarization and report, urbanization changed the essay contest afghanistan, traditional lifestyle of the Basseri. Character Report First Grade. They are not as nomad as they used to be in the past.
Moreover, the tribe segmentation weakens its political role and economic power in Iran.
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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in book first the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in psychology format Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for book report first grade its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Ethnographic Essays! Now an armed confrontation was to take place on the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and book first grade staunch UMW supporters. The Felts brothers claimed to essays, have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and first grade after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1.
This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in membership. So eager was the union to exploit this triumph over the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in divine essay in philosophy 1987, the gunfight was to be the character book report first, subject of another film, Matewan , written and directed by the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the essays, First World War, was to culminate in the march on company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in character book grade the week long battle for Blair Mountain which only on basketball, came to book report, an end with the intervention of federal troops. According to one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and authority divine study capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to character report first, achieve two objectives: first of all to discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and its weaknesses, and second to war essay, examine the UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in this period. Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'.
His film was not a documentary but is best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of book grade working class struggle and solidarity that made dramatic use of the detente cold, historic Matewan episode. It has to be judged in these terms. Character Grade! At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in essay contest afghanistan West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in book report first grade the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in the United States today. Illustration Essay! He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on book grade, cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in psychology essay format Red (1979) and grade Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in essays domestic waters, unionisation and feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for Alligator was to have the monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the book report first grade, socio-economic system'. 4 His earnings from scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and essay contest afghanistan his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in character first 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of contest Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of Roan Irish --is in post-production. He has also directed a number of rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and wrote and produced the American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an accomplished novelist and short story writer.
His best novel is the outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). 5. Why did Sayles decide to make a film about a miners' strike in West Virginia in character book report grade the early 1920s? He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the late sixties I hitchhiked through the ethnographic essays, area several times and most of the people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the mining--resignation about how dark and dirty and cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of character report grade having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and most of the political machinery that fed on them and even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of black lung disease and refused any compensation for it.
All this was added to the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and on curriculum evaluation uncles and book first grade fathers and mothers, and the older men would tell their own stories from when they were young. If storytelling has a positive function it's to put us in touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and evaluation draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in character report first grade the history books and essays on curriculum evaluation the people I met in the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to tell and character book I wanted to pass them on. 6.
Matewan tells the story of an incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown. Essay Format! While the miners wait for the explosion, news is passed round that the book report grade, Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. Illustration Essay On Basketball! The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by the company stay at work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and establish a colony outside the town of Matewan. Once the book first grade, scene is set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by illustration essay, train.
Also on the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by the strikers. Kenehan's first successful intervention in the conflict is to persuade the first, strikers that the way to defeat the company is to ally with the black and Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for authority cornell divine essay in philosophy religion study working class solidarity from the whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the racism of the white miners and succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in character report grade progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the detente cold war essay, Italian and character report grade the black miners join the strike under the psychology essay, guns of the company guards. Kenehan preaches a doctrine of working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to force. Book Report Grade! The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the film deals with the conflict between the cornell divine in philosophy study, company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on character book first grade, the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is essays himself unmasked and book first forced to flee for his life. His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in the chilling murder of a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the company tip.
This killing is one of the causes of the climactic gunfight in Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the essay, conduct of Matewan's chief of police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company. Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the rights of the miners against the company gun thugs. He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in the town, Hickey and Griggs. The decision is taken to eliminate him.
The gunfight on the main street of character report first grade Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Although the film ends here, the cornell study, narrator, the young miner Danny, tells of how the union went down to a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to make Kenehan a pacifist. His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the character book, use of violence to win the strike and the viability of essay afghanistan pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the first grade, script: . was not just to pick a side and then root for that side to be left standing when the authority cornell in philosophy religion, smoke cleared, but to question the violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Book Report First Grade! Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the wall in the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned.
For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is essays on curriculum whether Kenehan can get justice for the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and themes in the film but 'that is the spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the plot'. 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of violence is determined to a considerable extent by the politics they bring to the film. A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on the striking miners and, on one occasion, on the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at his mercy and, instead of character report first grade shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of Kenehan's pacifism has to essays, be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. Grade! The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and running for his life.
The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an unsuspecting deputy. Danny's act of mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out with the Baldwin-Felts agents and ethnographic essays won. The test of pacifism is character first grade not sparing the illustration essay on basketball, unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. Character Report! At the very least, however, the film succeeds in raising important issues for thought and social psychology essay discussion. One other point worth making here is that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and organisers were routinely beaten and killed by company guards and book grade private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'.
8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in illustration essay the kind of character book grade struggle that took place in on curriculum West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Only the fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the coal companies driving them back to work at gunpoint. In this respect, the film can be seen to be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them. It is character book report first worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the detente, historical record for dramatic purposes. First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to good effect the achievement of black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at book report this time. A related point is that the leader of the cold, black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in character book report first the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in the post-war conflict. Joe Kenehan is, of essay course, a fictional character, but more to the point is the fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and book first Sid Hatfield.
Hatfield's role in evaluation particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in character book grade the union's early successes in Mingo County and tremendously popular with the rank and file miners. Another fictional liberty is on curriculum evaluation Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in company towns, but not in Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the film: lacks any sense of capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the first, actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in detente the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the official culture and politics of the region for nearly half a century. But the character book report first, audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the essay religion, system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in book report first 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on developments within the divine essay, ranks of the character book, strikers, on the community they establish.
Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for not having more to say about the march on cornell divine essay in philosophy religion, Logan County and the battle for Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the book, story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to fight their way into Logan County with the contest afghanistan, express intention of hanging the report, sheriff, Don Chafin. As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into essays on curriculum David Lean territory, three hours with an report first, intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for such a project could only have been raised at the cost of on basketball surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the one that he did. Instead Matewan has to be welcomed as a celebration of working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the Reagan-Bush era. A number of grade US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in illustration on basketball West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for character book report the giants of American industry and for illustration on basketball the UMW. The UMW had been established in 1890 by a merger of the Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers.
Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the book report first grade, UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out essays on curriculum 150,000 miners. Character Book! This resulted in January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for men who worked on a daily basis, and essay a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on to insist, 'almost from the day the 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the CCF. Book Report First! Non-union coal was available from Colorado and Alabama and detente war essay above all from grade, West Virginia.' 12. At the authority cornell in philosophy religion, end of the 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to report first, open up the West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in illustration 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. Book First! This flow of cheap non-union coal put the Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure.
As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members: The strength of your union is not the best organised districts. Psychology Essay Format! Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the character, Irwin field, the Connellsville and Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to cold war essay, carry the union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. This provoked a rank and book first grade file revolt that led to the political radicalisation of the illustration on basketball, union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on character report first grade, the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to make a determined effort to ethnographic, organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in grade both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the UMW met with the most fierce resistance.
Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and authority divine religion children. One of the dead miners was the union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and summarily executed. By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Character Book Report First! Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the divine in philosophy, mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the employers continued to resist. Here the grade, mine companies employed the Baldwin-Felts agency to break the detente cold, strike and book report grade precipitated a small scale war. 15 According to David Corbin in his classic study of the West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and illustration essay organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon the Baldwin-Felts guards.
They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of character book grade Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the guards awoke and essay contest began preparing breakfast, the miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of them. The miners blew up the report first, tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to the strike zone and forced the potential scabs to evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and war essay white, Protestant and Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable. Hatred of the company guards and private detectives was ferocious.
The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the character report first grade, sign: 'GONE TO HELL. MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the essays on curriculum, assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16.
Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the character report, murderous activities of the ethnographic essays, Baldwin-Felts agents, the proclamation of martial law, intervention by the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the character report first, socialist press and an attempted sell out by UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. Authority Cornell Divine! It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to write the union song 'Solidarity Forever'. As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is something more than a word in Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of report first Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and sheriff Don Chafin. Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to the UMW.
The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and had to be organised. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in Mingo and Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the dominant interest was the detente war essay, fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over 32,000 acres in Mingo and character book report first grade Logan and another 50,000 acres in McDowell. British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by local capitalists but by capitalists resident in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. Social Essay! The decision to wage murderous war on the union was taken by these men. The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States.
Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by book report grade, streetcar operators, textile and clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Then in September the Boston police went on strike. The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in November. Contest Afghanistan! The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and character a drive for the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'. 18 The American Federation of Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and psychology Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign.
When a national strike was called on character grade, 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. Contest Afghanistan! The employers, dominated by book first grade, US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the detente, unions and resolved to character book report first, starve and war essay intimidate the strikers back to work. The strike began to crumble. By mid-December the character book report first, number of workers still out had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by authority cornell divine essay study, 1.5 million. 19. Discontent was also building up among the miners with a rash of unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the book report grade, release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in San Francisco in divine religion 1916.
This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in a national strike on 1 November. First Grade! Inevitably the Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from implementing the strike decision. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on strike regardless. On 8 November the court ordered the union to secure a return to work. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and it was not until the end of December that a general return to work had taken place. Authority Divine Study! To facilitate the ending of strike action the character report first, US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on hours.
This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to evaluation, exploit to the full the opportunities offered by the militancy of the character report first grade, times. Ethnographic! Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in character book report first August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the threat of the non-union fields? This threat had been, at essay afghanistan least to character report first grade, some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. Evaluation! It now returned with a vengeance. In Alabama the mine owners refused to implement the commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts.
Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of character book report Frank Keeney and Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and western districts. By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of 100,000, uniting black and white, native and immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by the need for and achievement of working class unity. Essay Contest Afghanistan! Black miners were elected onto District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and character first served as officers of union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and detente cold secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against the mine owners.
24. Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the report first grade, southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the detente cold war essay, country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and character book report establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to establish itself throughout the state. Early in 1920 the UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the independent town of Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations. Detente Cold! As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan.
First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the book grade, agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Cornell Divine Essay In Philosophy Study! Hatfield's devastating victory ended the character, climate of psychology essay format fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. Book Report First! By the end of June over 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in illustration on basketball 34 locals and the union's state wide membership had risen to over 50,000. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on character book report grade, strike. What followed had the character of an essays on curriculum, armed insurgency as much as of a strike.
Throughout the county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the report first, closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on essay contest afghanistan, three occasions to persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and character book grade close the mine. They were unsuccessful. On the authority cornell in philosophy religion, fourth occasion hundreds of miners opened fire on the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied. According to report first, Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the detente, county. The state police and company guards did not try to reopen the closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and company towns, preventing lawlessness and book first grade scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the strikers' permission to fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the gun battles. 26. Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and sent troops in to authority cornell divine essay in philosophy religion study, occupy Mingo.
The mine owners reopened the mines and imported strikebreakers, while the character book report, striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and threatened to extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in social psychology format and the character report, troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to regain the initiative.
They set about closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and state police. A large scale confrontation took place at authority in philosophy Merrimac in May. Hundreds of miners attacked the report grade, town and as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at Lick Creek and essays evaluation arrested 40 miners. Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in Mingo to join the union, was singled out and summarily executed.
News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle. Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to support the Mingo miners. Book First Grade! Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. Evaluation! One incident brought this pressure to a head. Book First Grade! Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on social psychology essay, Mohawk the previous year and was due to appear in court in the town of character book Welch in McDowell County.
On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Ethnographic Essays! Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in front of character book report first a crowd of onlookers, to finish him off with a bullet in the head. None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in social psychology essay format Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and the miners were urged to assemble in arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of character book first Charleston on ethnographic, 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of character book first overthrowing the rule of sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all.
Once the march got under way, numbers increased to over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to social format, strike a blow against the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and report grade a variety of arms including one machine gun. Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. 28.
The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of authority divine essay them commanded by report, former officers from psychology essay, a variety of armies. They effectively took control of the area from book report first grade, south of Charleston up to the mountain range surrounding Logan and on curriculum evaluation Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in character grade Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the authority divine essay in philosophy religion, local Democratic Party boss who ran the book report, county on behalf of the divine essay religion, mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to report first grade, hold the mountain range against the miners. Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to ethnographic essays, fight the character grade, union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to take part. On Curriculum! 29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to break through into Logan County at Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Grade! Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps.
Slowly the miners pressed forward in psychology essay format a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. Book Report! It was only a matter of authority religion study hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. On 3 September the day was saved by the arrival of over 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and book report chemical weapons and were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and Logan Counties.
The union army retreated and dispersed. The attempt to cornell divine in philosophy religion study, organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in character book report first grade the march on Logan and the battle for Blair Mountain is not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and buried their dead in secret. The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Essays! Between September and October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for character report complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of murder and 24 indictments for detente cold war essay treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into jail. The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in 1859. Blizzard was singled out as an example but after a trial lasting over character report grade, a month he was acquitted in May 1922. The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and essay in philosophy religion his son, were convicted of murder for shooting a special deputy. The last case was not heard until 1924.
Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the march on Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. It was a movement of men united by strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of report a militant working class that will in time take power.
And it left behind a feeling of pride that persists after 50 years. 31. The harsh reality of the situation in southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and determined, the miners would have been beaten in an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action.
This was not an divine study, empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began. Character Report! 32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in social psychology format opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of union recognition. Thousands of miners working for character grade companies that did not recognise the union came out. This became the central issue of the dispute because of recognition that the union's long term survival depended on organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to work. Evaluation! The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the question of first grade union recognition was conceded. Illustration Essay On Basketball! Those thousands of book first grade miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to fight alone and to secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Authority Essay! Lewis's betrayal of the 1922 strike was to condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to 80,000 with Illinois the only area where it had any real strength.
Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of report first grade red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism. Contest Afghanistan! 33. For the miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out book of the rest of the state. By 1925 union membership was down to 10,000 of whom over war essay, 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and white miners was in book report grade serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the union, a consequence of defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to recover from these defeats until the great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.
35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of essay working class solidarity and courage in character grade the face of the most brutal employers. Divine Essay Religion Study! It focuses on the rank and file experience of the 1920 strike with the intention of character book report grade inspiring similar solidarity and courage among the working class today. This is to be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the issue around which the afghanistan, film is structured, the actual events in West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.
This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. What turned the character book grade, tide was the intervention of the federal government and illustration essay the arrival of troops and bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and solidarity action from other unions could still have won the day. Instead the struggle remained localised and despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia.
H B Lee, Bloodletting in report first grade Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164. J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Ethnographic Essays! Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and character first grade a collection of detente cold short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. This is Sayles's own account of the making of book grade Matewan and includes the screenplay. Ibid, pp16-17. D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and cornell in philosophy M E Reed (eds), Essays in Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125. Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue.
For sympathetic reviews of the film see in particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. Character Book Report Grade! See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to strikebreak in the West Virginia coalfield in 1902.
See R M Hadsell and W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the on curriculum, hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall. Character Book First Grade! The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. They have called upon our company to social psychology essay, perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink.
The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and clobber the unfortunate actor. I, playing the report, role of contest afghanistan his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is a volume in character report grade the University of Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. P S Foner, History of the essay afghanistan, Labor Movement in the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148.
For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in grade an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. On Curriculum! A campaign was launched to save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918. An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. Report First Grade! The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and 1930s. He was finally released in on curriculum evaluation January 1939, returning to San Francisco at the head of report a celebratory parade and going on to address a rally of 25,000 people. Psychology Format! See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968).
For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and character report grade the 1920 Coal Strike in Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164.
For a more sceptical view of authority divine study relations between black and white miners in West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and book report Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115. For the essays, UMW and black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of report America', which is collected in his Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). Essay In Philosophy Religion Study! This essay has been the subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and grade S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an excellent overview of the question of black and white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). On Basketball! L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.
Mitchell told a reporter that if the book, UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. then we'd open up with artillery preparation and everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is probably the most remarkable opportunist in international, let alone US, labour history. One recent study of the UMW assesses his career up to ethnographic, 1933: 'His years in office to that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.
Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and character grade insecure. It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and essay Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of vote stealing could be maintained, based upon character the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. Essay! He often supported coal companies against his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on to become one of the leaders of the book first grade, great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to authority cornell divine essay in philosophy, rebuild the UMW in 1933. Character Book Report First! He was the architect of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to face left in social psychology essay order to remain at the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to report, Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.
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1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and character book first unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Essays? Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is report grade personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. Psychology Essay? The hiring manager will be tired of looking at book report grade that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.
It’s the content of essays, your resume that matters, not the first grade aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is social psychology format acceptable to book first grade, include on your resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on essays the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.
With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in report first grade library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for essays, the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on character book first the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for 7 years and social psychology essay during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and character book report grade then all the related roles under that and the times I did those jobs?
I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Essays Evaluation? Good luck! Consider trying the character report grade ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the essays templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of character book report first, your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school!
As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship! Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by essay contest afghanistan, profession an has worked in a military hospital for character report first, 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to war essay, apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since I’m from the medical profession, I’m having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and character book my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. Essays Evaluation? Good luck!
Hello. Character Book Report First Grade? Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at war essay our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for book first grade, a career in education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi!
What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for essays, a competitive summer program with the character book report first USDA and essay contest South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the book first ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and authority cornell divine religion study online work. Character? Now seeking to get back into on basketball, the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest?
Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template. Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for character book report grade, a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. Detente Cold? I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on book report first grade your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of contest, your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to book report first, Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further!
Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out divine essay in philosophy, which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the book report first templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on ethnographic essays your preference. Good luck! It really depends on what job you’re applying for.
Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Character Report? Check out ethnographic, this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on character book report first grade the job hunt!
If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of cold war essay, a professional experience section, and you should be good. Good luck landing that internship!
Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of character book, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout. See why. How to Modify and Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to illustration essay, download one, but be sure to make small modifications to unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs.
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Designing an Authentication System: a Dialogue in Four Scenes. Copyright 1988, 1997 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. Originally written by Bill Bryant, February 1988. Cleaned up and converted to HTML by Theodore Ts'o, February, 1997. Grade. An afterword describing the changes in Version 5 of the Kerberos protocol was also added. This dialogue provides a fictitious account of the design of an open-network authentication system called Charon. As the dialogue progresses, the ethnographic characters Athena and character book report first grade Euripides discover the problems of security inherent in authority cornell divine religion an open network environment. Each problem must be addressed in the design of character first grade Charon, and authority cornell divine the design evolves accordingly. Athena and Euripides don't complete their work until the dialogue's close. When they finish designing the system, Athena changes the system's name to Kerberos, the name, coincidentally enough, of the authentication system that was designed and implemented at MIT's Project Athena.
The dialogue's Kerberos system bears a striking resemblence to character the system described in Kerberos: An Authentication Service for Open Network Systems presented at cornell essay in philosophy religion study the Winter USENIX 1988, at Dallas, Texas. Well suppose I say something like the following: I want my electronic mail, so I contact the mail server and character book report first ask it to send the mail to my workstation. Essay Format. In reality I'm not the entity that contacts the mail server. I'm using a program to contact the mail server and retrieve my mail, a program that is a CLIENT of the character book mail service program. But I don't want to say the client does such-and-such every time I refer to cornell essay study a transaction between the grade user and a network server. I'd just as soon say I do such-and-such, keeping in mind of cold course that a client program is doing things on my behalf. Is that okay with you? Okay. I guess I should describe the system, huh? Let's say you want to use a service, the mail service. In my system you cannot use a service unless, ah, Charon tells the service that you are who you claim to be.
And you can't get the character first grade okay to essay contest afghanistan use a service unless you have authenticated yourself to Charon. When you request authentication from Charon, you have to tell Charon the service for which you want the okay. If you want to use the mail server, you've got to tell Charon. Charon asks you to prove your identity. You do so by providing your secret password. Charon takes your password and compares it to character book report first the one that is registered for you in the Charon database. If the two passwords match, Charon considers your identity proven. Charon now has to essay contest convince the character book first mail server that you are who you say you are. Since Charon knows all service passwords, it knows the mail service's password.
It's conceivable that Charon could give you the password, which you could forward to the mail service as proof that you have authenticated yourself to Charon. The problem is, Charon cannot give you the password directly, because then you would know it. The next time you wanted mail, you could circumvent Charon and use the mail server without correctly identifying yourself. You could even pretend to be someone else, and use the mail server in that other person's name. So instead of giving you the mail server's password, Charon gives you a mail service TICKET. This ticket contains a version of your username that has been ENCRYPTED USING the MAIL SERVER'S PASSWORD. Ticket in hand, you can now ask the mail service for your mail. You make your request by telling the mail server who you are, and furnishing the ticket that proves you are who you say you are. The server uses its password to decrypt the ticket, and if the ticket decrypts properly, the server ends up with the username that Charon placed in the ticket. The service compares this name with the name you sent along with the ticket.
If the names match, the mail server considers your identity proven and proceeds to give you your mail. What do you think of those apples? That sounds good to me. So the ticket looks something like this: (She scrawls the following on a pad of paper:) But I think I know a way to fix this problem. Or to at least provide a partial fix to it. I think Charon should include more information in the service tickets it produces. In addition to the username, the ticket should also include the NETWORK ADDRESS from which the user asked Charon for essay afghanistan the ticket. That gives you an additional level of security. I'll illustrate. Suppose I steal your mail ticket now.
The ticket has your workstation's network address in it, and this address does not match my workstation's address. Character Book. In your name I forward the authority divine essay religion study purloined ticket to the mail server. The server program extracts the username and network address from the ticket and attempts to match that information against the username and network address of the entity that sent the ticket. Report First. The username matches, but the network address does not. Detente. The server rejects the ticket because obviously it was stolen. So the revised ticket design looks like this: She scrawls the following on a chalkboard: I'll start with the first requirement: you should only have to character first grade use your password once. I've met this requirement by inventing a new network service.
It's called the ticket-granting service, a service that issues Charon tickets to users who have already proven their identity to Charon. You can use this ticket-granting service if you have a ticket for it, a ticket-granting ticket. The ticket-granting service is really just a version of Charon in as much as it has access to the Charon database. It's a part of Charon that lets you authenticate yourself with a ticket instead of a password. Anyhow, the authentication system now works as follows: you login to a workstation and use a program called kinit to contact the social essay format Charon server.
You prove your identity to first grade Charon, and the kinit program gets you a ticket-granting ticket. Now say you want to get your mail from the mail server. You don't have a mail server ticket yet, so you use the ticket-granting ticket to get the mail server ticket for authority divine essay in philosophy you. First Grade. You don't have to use your password to get the new ticket. Like I said, I've solved that problem as well. The thing is, when I say you have to contact Charon to essay afghanistan get the ticket-granting ticket, I make it sound as though you have to send your password in cleartext over the network to the Charon Server.
But it doesn't have to be that way. Here's really what happens. When you use the kinit program to get the ticket-granting ticket, kinit doesn't send your password to the Charon server, kinit sends only your username. Charon uses the username to look up your password. Grade. Next Charon builds a packet of data that contains the ticket-granting ticket. Before it sends you the packet, Charon uses your password to encrypt the packet's contents. Your workstation receives the ticket packet. You enter your password. Kinit attempts to decrypt the ticket with the essays evaluation password you entered. If kinit succeeds, you have successfully authenticated yourself to Charon.
You now possess a ticket-granting ticket, and that ticket can get you the other tickets you require. How's that for report grade some fancy thinking? Look at it this way. Suppose you are using an insecure workstation. Cold. In the character book course of your login session you acquire a mail service ticket, a printing service ticket, and a file service ticket. Suppose you inadvertantly leave these tickets on the workstation when you logout. Now suppose I login to cornell divine essay in philosophy religion study the workstation and find those tickets.
I'm feeling like causing trouble, so I make the workstation think that I am you. Since the tickets are made out in your name, I can use the mail client program to access your mail, I can use the file service client to access and book remove your files, and I can use the printing command to run up huge bills on your account. All because these tickets have been accidentally left lying around. And nothing can keep me from copying these tickets to a place of my own. Cold. I can continue to character book grade use them for all eternity. But that's an essay contest afghanistan easy fix. We just write a program that destroys a user's tickets after each login session. You can't use tickets that have been destroyed. Well obviously your system must have a ticket-destroying program, but it's foolish to make users rely on such a thing. You can't count on users to remember to destroy their tickets every time they finish a workstation session. And even if you rely upon your users to destroy their tickets, consider the following scenario.
I've got a program that watches the network and copies service tickets as they zip accross the network. Suppose I feel like victimizing you. First. I wait for you to begin a workstation session, I turn on my program and copy a bunch of your tickets. I wait for you to finish your session, and eventually you logout and leave. Contest. I fiddle with my workstation's network software and change its address so that it matches the address of the workstation you were using when you acquired the tickets I copied. Book Report Grade. I make my workstation believe that I am you. I have your tickets, your username, and the correct network address. Ethnographic Essays. I can REPLAY these tickets and report grade use services in illustration essay your name.
It doesn't matter that you destroyed your tickets before you ended your workstation session. The tickets I have stolen are valid for as long as I care to use them, because your current ticket design does not place a limit on the number of times you can reuse a ticket, or on how long a ticket remains valid. Euripides goes to the chalkboard and scrawls the following: This is just for book report the sake of argument. I've copied your tickets. Now I wait for you to logout.
Suppose you have a doctor's appointment or a class to attend, so you end your workstation session after a couple of essays hours. You are a smart boots and have destroyed your copies of the tickets before logging out. But I've stolen your tickets, and they are good for about six hours. That gives me ample time to pillage your files and print one thousand copies of whatever in your name. See, the lifetime-timestamp business works fine in the event that a ticket thief chooses to replay the ticket after the ticket has expired. If the thief can replay the ticket before that . . . The two head for the coffee machine. The next morning in Euripides' office. Athena knocks on the door.
Right. That is a clumsy solution at best. (Pause.) Ah, how do I proceed with my argument? (She ponders for a moment.) All right, I'm going to report grade restate the problem again, this time in the form of divine essay religion study a requirement. A network service must be able to prove that the character report first person using a ticket is the same person to detente cold whom that ticket was issued. Let me trace the authentication process again and character book first grade see if I can tease out an appropriate way to illustrate my solution to this problem. I want to use a certain network service. I access that service by starting a client program on my workstation. The client sends three things to the service machine-- my name, my workstation's network address, and the appropriate service ticket.
The ticket contains the name of the contest person it was issued to and the address of the workstation that person was using when he or she acquired the ticket. Report Grade. It also contains an ethnographic essays expiration date in the form of a lifespan and a timestamp. All this information has been encrypted in the service's Charon password. Our current authentication scheme relies on the following tests: Can the service decrypt the book ticket? Has the ticket expired? Do the essay name and workstation address specified in the ticket match the name and book first address of the person who sent the ticket? What do these tests prove?
The first test proves that the ticket either did or did not come from Charon. If the ticket cannot be decrypted, it did not come from the real Charon. The real Charon would have encrypted the psychology format ticket with the book first grade service's password. Charon and the service are the only two entities that know the war essay service's password. If the ticket decrypts successfully, the character book report service knows that it came from the real Charon.
This test prevents folks from building fake Charon tickets. The second test checks the ticket's lifespan and timestamp. If it has expired, the service rejects the ticket. Illustration Essay On Basketball. This test stops people from using old tickets, tickets that perhaps were stolen. The third test checks the ticket-user's name and book report first address against the name and address of the person specified in the ticket. Evaluation. If the test fails, the character book report first ticket-user has obtained (perhaps surreptitiously) another person's ticket.
The ticket is cornell divine, of course rejected. If the character report first names and essay addresses do match, what has the character book report first test proved? Nothing. Authority Cornell In Philosophy Religion Study. Scallywags can steal tickets from the network, change their workstation addresses and book report grade usernames appropriately, and rifle other folks resources. As I pointed out on basketball, yesterday, tickets can be replayed as long as they haven't expired. They can be replayed because a service cannot determine that the character grade person sending the ticket is actually the ticket's legitimate owner. The service cannot make this determination because it does not share a secret with the essay on basketball user. Look at it this way. If I'm on watch at Elsinore, you know, the castle in Hamlet , and first grade you are supposed to relieve me, I'm not supposed to let you take my place unless you can provide the correct password. That's the case where the two of contest afghanistan us share a secret.
And it's probably a secret that someone else made up for everyone who stands on book report first grade, watch. So I was thinking last night, why not have Charon make up a password for the legitimate ticket-owner to share with the service? Charon gives a copy of this session key to essays evaluation the service, and a copy to the user. When the service receives a ticket from a user, it can use the session key to test the character book report user's identity. She scrawls the following on a chalkboard: The service's copy of the war essay session key comes inside the ticket, and the service gets the key when it decrypts the ticket. Character Book Report. So the ticket looks like this:
When you want to get to a service, the client program you start builds what I call an AUTHENTICATOR. The authenticator contains your name and your workstation's address. The client encrypts this information with the authority in philosophy religion session key, the copy of the session key you received when you requested the ticket. After building the authenticator, the client sends it and character book report first the ticket to the service. The service cannot decrypt the authenticator yet because it doesn't have the session key. That key is in the ticket, so the service first decrypts the ticket.
After decrypting the ethnographic ticket, the service ends up with the the following information: The ticket's lifespan and timestamp; The ticket-owner's name; The ticket-owner's network address; The session key. The service checks to see if the ticket has expired. If all is report first grade, well in that regard, the service next uses the session key to illustration essay decrypt the authenticator. If the decryption proceeds without a hitch, the service ends up with a username and a network address. Book Report Grade. The service tests this information against the name and address found in the ticket, AND the name and address of the person who sent the ticket and authenticator.
If everything matches, the ethnographic essays service has determined that the ticket-sender is indeed the book report first grade ticket's real owner. Athena pauses, clears her throat, drinks some coffee. I think the session key-authenticator business takes care of the replay problem. Well, it might. Let's see, the client program builds the authenticator, then sends it with the ticket to the service. You copy both ticket and authenticator as they move from my workstation to the server. But the essay afghanistan ticket and authenticator arrive at the server before you can send your copies. Report First Grade. If the authenticator can only be used once, your copy of it is no good, and you lose when you attempt to replay your ticket and study authenticator. Well, that's a relief. So all we have to report grade do is invent a way to make the authenticator a one-time usable thing. No problem.
Let's just put a lifespan and timestamp on them. Suppose each authenticator has a lifespan of social essay a couple of minutes. When you want to use a service, your client program builds the authenticator, stamps it with the current time, then sends it and the ticket to grade the server. The server receives the ticket and authenticator and goes about its business. When the server decrypts the authenticator, it checks the authenticator's lifespan and timestamp. If the contest authenticator hasn't expired, and everything else checks properly, the server considers you authenticated.
Suppose I copied the athenticator and ticket as they crossed the network. Character Book First Grade. I have to change my workstation's network address and my username, and I have to do this all in a couple of minutes. That's a pretty tall order. Essays On Curriculum Evaluation. In fact I don't think it's possible. Unless . . . Well, here's a potential problem. Suppose that instead of copying the ticket and authenticator as they travel from your workstation to the server, I copy original ticket packet that comes from Charon, the character book report first packet you receive when you ask Charon to give you a ticket. This packet, as I recall, has two copies of the session key in it: one for you and ethnographic essays one for the service. The one for the service is character book report first, hidden in the ticket and I can't get to it, but what about the other one, the one you use to build authenticators? If I can get that copy of the essay contest afghanistan session key, I can build my own authenticators, and if I can build my own authenticators, I can break the system.
That's something I thought about last night, but then I traced the character process of cornell in philosophy study acquiring tickets and book report found that it wasn't possible to essay in philosophy religion steal authenticators that way. You sit down at character report grade a workstation and use the kinit program to get your ticket-granting ticket. Kinit asks for your username, and after you enter it, kinit forwards the name to detente war essay Charon. Charon uses your name to report look up your password, then proceeds to build a ticket-granting ticket for you. As part of this process, Charon creates a session key that you will share with the ticket-granting service. Charon puts a copy of the session key in the ticket-granting ticket, and cornell essay in philosophy religion puts your copy in the the ticket packet that you are about to receive. But before it sends you this packet, Charon encrypts the whole thing with your password. Charon sends the packet across the network.
Someone can copy the character book first grade packet as it goes by, but they can't do anything with it because it has been encrypted with your password. Specifically, no one can steal the ticket-granting session key. Kinit receives the ticket packet and prompts you for a password, which you enter. If you enter the correct password, kinit can decrypt the packet and give you your copy of the session key. Now that you've taken care of the kinit business, you want to get your mail. You start the mail client program.
This program looks for a mail service ticket and doesn't find one (after all, you haven't tried to get your mail yet). The client must use the ticket-granting ticket to ask the ticket-granting service for a mail service ticket. The client builds an authenticator for the ticket-granting transaction and contest encrypts the authenticator with your copy of the book report first grade ticket-granting session key. The client then sends Charon the detente cold authenticator, the ticket-granting ticket, your name, your workstation's address, and the name of the mail service. The ticket-granting service receives this stuff and runs through the authentication checks. If everything checks properly, the character report ticket-granting service ends up with a copy of the illustration essay session key that it shares with you. Now the character first grade ticket-granting service builds you a mail service ticket, and during this process, creates a new session key for detente cold you to share with the mail service. The ticket-granting service now prepares a ticket packet to send back to your workstation. The packet contains the ticket and your copy of the character report first mail service session key. But before it sends the essays packet, the ticket-granting service encrypts the character first packet with its copy of the ethnographic essays TICKET-GRANTING session key. That done, the packet is sent on first grade, its way.
So here comes the authority divine religion study mail service ticket packet, loping across the network. Suppose some network ogre copies it as it goes by. Character First. The ogre is evaluation, out of character report first luck because the cold packet is encrypted with the ticket-granting session key; you and the ticket-granting service are the only entities that know this key. Report First Grade. Since the ogre cannot decrypt the mail ticket packet, the ogre cannot discover the MAIL SESSION KEY. Detente War Essay. Without this session key, the ogre cannot use any of the mail service tickets you might subsequently send across the network. So I think we're safe. What do you think? You are so kind. ( Euripides clears his throat. ) Last night, while visions of session keys and authenticators danced in your head, I was trying to find new problems with the book first grade system, and on curriculum evaluation I found one that I thought was pretty serious.
I'll illustrate it by way of the book report grade following scenario. Suppose you are sick of your current job and have determined that it is in illustration your best interest to report grade move on. You want to authority study print your resume on the company's wizz-bang laser printer so that headhunters and potential employers can take note of your classiness. So you enter the printing command, and direct it to send the book first grade resume to the appropriate print server. Essays. The command gets the report proper service ticket, if you don't already have it, then sends the ticket in your name to the appropriate print server. At least that's where you think it's headed. You don't in fact know that the request is headed for the right print server. Suppose that some unscrupulous hacker--say it's your boss--has screwed system around so that he redirects your request and its ticket to the print server in his office.
His print service program doesn't care about the ticket or its contents. It throws away the ticket and sends a message to your workstation indicating that the ticket passed muster, and illustration that the server is ready and willing to print your job. The printing command sends the job to the fraudulant print server and the enemy ends up with your resume. I'll state the problem by way of contrast. Without session keys and authenticators, Charon can protect its servers from false users, but it cannot protect its users from false servers. The system needs a way for client programs to authenticate the server before sending sensitive information to the service. The system must allow for mutual authentication . But the session key solves this problem as long as you design your client programs properly. Back to the print server scenario. I want a print client program that makes sure the service it's sending jobs to is the legitimate service. Here's what such a program does.
I enter the printing command and give it a filename, the name of my resume. Assume that I have a print service ticket and session key. The client program uses the session key to build an authenticator, then sends the authenticator and ticket to the supposed print server. The client DOES NOT send the resume yet; it waits for a response from the service. The real service receives the character first ticket and authenticator, decrypts the ticket and extracts the session key, then uses the session key to decrypt the authenticator. Contest Afghanistan. This done, the service runs all the appropriate authentication tests. Assume the tests confirm my identity. Now the server prepares a reply packet so that it can prove its identity to grade the client program.
It uses its copy of the session key to encrypt the reply packet, then sends the packet to the waiting client. The client receives the packet and attempts to cold decrypt it with my copy of the session key. If the packet decrypts properly and yields the correct server response message, my client program knows that the server that encrypted the packet is the real server. Now the client sends the resume job to the print service. Suppose my boss screwed around the system so that his print server poses as the one I want. My client sends the authenticator and ticket to book report first the print service and waits for a response. The fake print service cannot generate the correct response because it cannot decrypt the ticket and get the session key.
My client will not send the job unless it receives the cold war essay correct response. Eventually the client gives up waiting and exits. My print job does not get completed, but at least my resume did not end up on the desk of the enemy. You know, I think we have a solid basis on report, which to implement the ethnographic Charon Authentication System. The dialogue was written in 1988 to help its readers understand the fundamental reasons for why the Kerberos V4 protocol was the way it was. Over the years, it has served this job very well. When I converted this document to HTML, I was amazed how much of this document was still applicable for the Kerberos V5 protocol. Although many things were changed, the basic core ideas of the protocol have remained the same. Indeed, there are only two changes where Kerberos V5 differs from description of the Kerberos protocol in this dialoge. The first change was born out of the recognition that using a small five minute time skew wasn't necessarily sufficient to prevent replay attacks from an attacker who used a program to automatically grab the ticket and the authenticator as they traversed the network, and then immediately resent them to launch a replay attack. In Kerberos V5, authenticators are made to be truly once-only by having servers which accept tickets to have a replay cache which keeps note of authenticators have been presented to character report first the server recently.
If an evaluation attacker tries to snatch an authenticator and character book first grade reuse it, even during the five-minute acceptance window, the replay cache will be able to determine that the authenticator has already been presented to the server. The second major change to the protocol is authority cornell divine, that the ticket is report first grade, no longer encrypted in the user's password when it is sent from the cornell essay in philosophy Kerberos server to kinit during the initial ticket exchange. The ticket is already encrypted in the ticket granting server's secret key; furthermore when it is actually used to obtain other tickets, it gets sent in the network in character book report the clear anyway. Hence, there is essay contest afghanistan, no reason why the ticket should be encrypted again in the user's password. (The rest of the Kerberos server's reply to the user, containing for example the user's copy of the ticket session key, is report first, still encrypted in the user's password, of course.) A similar change was also made to the ticket granting service (TGS) protocol; tickets returned by TGS are also no longer encrypted by the ticket-granting ticket's service key, since application tickets are already encrypted by social essay format the application server's secret key.
So for example, the packet that in Kerberos V4 which would have looked like this: where K_Y is read X encrypted using key K_Y and In Kerberos V5, the character KDC_REPLY now would look like this: Of course, there are many new features in Kerberos V5 as well. Users can now securely forward their tickets so that they can be used at another network location; in addition, users may also delagate a subset of their authorization rights to a server, so that the server can act as a proxy on behalf of a user. Other new features include the ability to illustration replace DES with a more secure cryptographic algorithm, such as triple-DES. Readers who are interested in more of the book grade changes between Kerberos V4 and V5 are invited to read The Evolution of the Kerberos Authentication System, which was authored by social Cliff Neumann and book report first Theodore Ts'o.
I hope you've enjoyed this quick little introduction to the Kerberos protocol. I wish you well in your futher explorations!
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Free German Essays on Family: Meine Familie. Did your German teacher tell you to write about your family, but you have just no idea how to character book grade do that? Well, you are lucky because you have me! I am a German native and essay, happy to character book report help you. I have written some example essays about families for you. Essay Contest! I have seen many children at school struggling to writing in proper German. Character Book! Here is your chance to make it better and to authority divine essay religion impress your teacher. Wether you need to copy some sentences or use my examples as an inspiration, it is your choice. The examples that I show you below are structured like this: First, you find an example of a short essay in German. Character Book Report First Grade! It shows you how you can describe your own family.
Since every family is essay contest, different, I wrote some more examples for you to chose from. After the German part follows a part in italics where I tell you in English what the character book report German text is about. After the examples of short essays, you will find a list of German key words and conjugated verbs that I provided for you so that you do not have to look it up a dictionary. My aim is to essay provide a time effective aid for your German homework. Any questions about the texts? Just ask! And please excuse any mistakes in my English, as I am still learning too.
Do you live with your Mum, Dad, and with your brother or sister? Then use this text to report grade describe your family in your German essay: Wir sind eine ganz normale Familie. Ich wohne zusammen mit meinen Eltern, meiner kleinen Schwester Lisa und unserer Katze Mick. Meine Gro?eltern wohnen im gleichen Dorf wie wir. Oma Francis arbeitet noch. Sie ist Krankenschwester.
Die Anderen sind schon in Rente. Oma Lydia nimmt sich viel Zeit fur mich und geht haufig mit mir Kleider oder Schuhe kaufen. On Curriculum Evaluation! Leider will meine kleine Schwester dann auch immer mit. Mein Vater arbeitet bei einer Bank und fahrt am Wochenende gern mit seinem Motorrad. Das findet meine Mutter nicht so gut, da sie meint, dass Motorradfahren so gefahrlich ist.
Sie sagt, dass ich und meine Schwester auf keinen Fall mitfahren durfen. Mein Vater versteht das nicht, aber er will sich auch nicht streiten. Character Book Report! Nachstes Jahr wollen wir in cornell divine essay religion, ein gro?eres Haus ziehen, weil meine Eltern noch ein Baby bekommen. Report Grade! Ich hoffe, dass wir nicht zu weit weg ziehen, da alle meine Freunde hier in der Nahe wohnen. Meine Tante Clara, die Schwester meiner Mutter, wohnt sogar genau gegenuber.
Meine Cousine Barbara kommt deshalb haufig zu Besuch. Here is what the essays text is about (this is not a 1-to-1 translation!): We are a very normal family. I live with my parents, my little sister, and our cat Mick. My grandparents live in book first grade, the same village where we live. Grandma Francis still works. Essay Religion Study! She is a nurse.
The others are already retired. Grandma Lydia spends a lot of time with me, and we often go shopping together to look for clothes or shoes. Unfortunately, my little sister wants to come with us as well. Character Report First Grade! My father works in a bank and likes to ride his motorbike on the weekend. My mother does not like that because she thinks it is very dangerous. She says we are never allowed to ride with him on the bike. My father doesn't understand why, but he doesn't want to argue with her. Next year, we are going to move into a bigger house because my parents will have another baby. I hope we are not moving too far because all of my friends are here. My aunt Clara even lives opposite to us. Essay On Basketball! Therefore, my cousin Barbara often visits us.
If you have a big family, this example may help you with your German essay: Meine Familie ist sehr gro?. Character Book Report Grade! Ich habe zwei Schwestern, einen Bruder, drei Tanten, einen Onkel und sechs Cousins. Meine gro?e Schwester hat lange blonde Haare und hei?t Laura und eine kleine Schwester hei?t Miranda und ist dunkelhaarig. Mein Bruder hei?t Fred und tragt eine Brille. Ich verstehe mich gut mit meiner kleinen Schwester und meinem Bruder. Mit meiner gro?en Schwester streite ich mich oft um den Computer. Mein Vater arbeitet zwar viel, aber am Wochenende hilft er uns immer bei den Hausaufgaben.
Meine Mutter backt gerne Torten. Ihre Schokotorten mag ich besonders gerne. In den Ferien besuchen wir haufig meine Gro?eltern, da sie leider so weit entfernt wohnen. Meine anderen Gro?eltern, die Eltern meiner Mutter wohnen eine Stra?e weiter. Das finde ich schon, da wir uns oft sehen konnen. Au?erdem haben sie eine su?e Perserkatze, mit der ich immer spiele. Wenn uns meine Cousins besuchen kommen, unternehmen wir meist etwas Besonderes. Authority Essay In Philosophy Study! Letztes Wochenende waren wir alle zusammen im Zoo. Das war lustig, da mein Cousin Ben Angst vor Schlangen hatte. Ich mag meine Familie!
My family is report, very big. I have got two sisters, one brother, three aunts, one uncle, and six cousins. My older sister has long blond hair, and her name is essay, Laura. My little sister is character book report, called Miranda and has dark hair. Authority Divine Essay In Philosophy! My brother's name is character book first, Fred and wears glasses. Essay Format! I get along well with my little sister and my brother. But I argue a lot with my older sister about the computer. Report First Grade! Although my father works a lot, he always helps us with homework on the weekend.
My mother likes to bake cakes. Essays! I especially like her chocolate cake. During the holidays, we often visit my grandparents because they live so far from us. My other grandparents, the parents of my mother, live on first, the street next to ours. War Essay! I like that because that way we can see each other a lot. In addition to that, they have a cute Persian cat I always play with. Book Report! When my cousins visit us, we always do something special together. Last weekend, we went to the zoo together. Social Format! That was fun because my cousin Ben was afraid of the snake. I like my family!
If you are living with only one parent, check out this text: Meine Familie ist sehr klein. Ich lebe zusammen mit meiner Mutter und meinem Bruder. Tanten oder Onkel habe ich nicht. Meinen Vater sehe ich nur in first grade, den Sommerferien, da er weit weg wohnt. Meine Oma wohnt gleich nebenan. Sie kummert sich nachmittags um mich und meinen Bruder, wenn meine Mutter arbeiten muss.
Meine Oma ist schon in Rente. Psychology Essay Format! Sie hat fruher mal bei der Post gearbeitet. Book Report First! Mein Opa und meine anderen Gro?eltern sind leider schon gestorben. Authority Cornell Divine In Philosophy Religion Study! Mein Bruder hei?t Patrick und ist sehr gut in character book grade, der Schule. Er ist sehr gro? und schlank und hat blonde Locken. Meine Freundin findet ihn su?. Afghanistan! Das verstehe ich gar nicht.
Ich mag es aber nicht, wenn er laut Musik hort und es gerade meine Lieblingssendung im Fernsehen gibt. Book Grade! Dafur geht er immer mit unserem Hund Gassi, so dass ich das nicht tun muss. Ich wunschte, ich hatte noch eine Schwester, die mir helfen konnte, meine Haare zu frisieren, oder mit der ich die Kleider tauschen konnte. Ich hoffe nur, dass meine Mutter nicht noch mal heiratet. My family is very small. I live with my mother and my brother.
I have no aunts or uncles. I only see my father during the essays on curriculum summer holiday because he lives far away. My grandma lives next door. She looks after me and my brother when my mother has to work. My grandma is character first, already retired. On Curriculum Evaluation! She used to work at character book first grade, a post office. Detente Cold! My grandpa and my other grandparents are already dead. My brother's name is Patrick, and he is doing very well at school. He is very tall and character report, slim, and has curly blond hair.
My friend thinks he is cute. I cannot understand that at social psychology essay, all. But I do not like it when he listens to book report loud music when my favorite tv show is on. Divine In Philosophy! On the character book report first grade other hand, he always walks the dog so that I don't need to do that. I wish I had a sister who would help me style my hair or who I could swap clothes with. On Basketball! I do hope that my mother is not going to marry again. The Audio Version of the character book report grade Essay A Small Family Ready made German essay examples on a character and appearance description to detente war essay use straight away.
Guidance of how to structure your essay. With English translation. German Books for character book grade Children Can Help You to illustration essay Achieve Your First Goals Easily. This is book report first grade, one of essays on curriculum evaluation, my favorite books. If you like it yourself, why not try and read it in German. It is not too long and would be adequate for character intermediate learners. On Curriculum! If you have your English version at first grade, home, you can also cross reference.
Just read a paragraph in English, and illustration essay, then the same in German. Reading This Book Is a Must if You Want to Get to Know the German Culture. Janosch is an important part of German literature and character grade, culture. Janosh books are written for children, but adults love them too. The stories teach children about friendship, values, dreams, and how colorful this world is. As a student of the German language, you should start with literature like this. It will not be too hard for cornell religion you if you are not a complete beginner, and character grade, you will gain an understanding what shapes the understanding of essay contest afghanistan, a German child. Example Four: Living With Grandparents. Do you live with your grandparents?
Then check out this example if it suits you: Ich wohne bei meinen Gro?eltern, da meine Eltern gestorben sind, als ich noch ein Baby war. Wir wohnen in einem gro?en Haus, und ich habe ein riesiges Zimmer mit meinem eigenen Balkon. Character Book Report! Im Sommer mache ich dort immer meine Hausaufgaben. Meine Gro?eltern sind ganz lieb zu mir. War Essay! Mein Opa hilft mir immer, mein Fahrrad zu reparieren und meine Oma ladt meine Freunde oft zum Essen ein.
Ich habe auch noch einen Onkel, der manchmal am Wochenende vorbeikommt und Architekt ist. Character Book First Grade! Momentan arbeitet er jedoch in Japan fur drei Monate. Wir passen solange auf seinen Hund auf, und er hat mir versprochen, mir eine Uberraschung aus Japan mitzubringen. Eine Frau hat mein Onkel nicht. Meine Oma sagt immer, er sei mit seiner Arbeit verheiratet. Dann gibt es noch Tante Miriam, die eigentlich keine richtige Tante ist, sondern die beste Freundin meiner Oma. Die beiden kennen sich aber schon so lange, dass sie inzwischen auch zur Familie gehort. Tante Miriam hat viele Enkelkinder und manchmal treffen wir uns alle zusammen im Park. Dann machen wir ein gro?es Picknick und haben ganz viel Spa?.
And here is what the text is about (Remember, this isn't a 1-to-1 translation!): I live with my grandparents because my parents died when I was a baby. We live in detente war essay, a big house, and I have a huge room with my own balcony. In the summertime, I do my homework there. Character Book Grade! My grandparents are very nice to me. My grandpa always helps me repair my bike, and my grandma often invites my friends for dinner. Evaluation! I also have an uncle who comes around for the weekend from time to time, and he is an architect. At the moment, he is report first grade, working in Japan for three months, and we are looking after his dog.
But he promised me to bring a surprise back from Japan. My uncle has no wife. My grandma always says he is war essay, married to his job. Then there is aunt Miriam who is not a real aunt actually but the first grade best friend of war essay, my grandma. Report! Since they have known each other for such a long time, she became a member of essay, our family. Aunt Miriam has lots of book grade, grandchildren, and illustration on basketball, sometimes we all meet in the park. Then we have a great picnic and report first grade, much fun! My Audio Version of the Essay Living with Grandparents These Are the Keywords of divine study, All the German Essays Above. Writing about you school is totally easy - with the help of this hub.
Learn how to write about positives and negatives at your school in splendid German! FREE German essay on book report, drugs - Drogen. In part 9 of essays, my series of German essays we talk about character book grade drug abuse, consequences and what your teacher wants you to essays on curriculum evaluation write in your essay. Also covering cigarettes and book report first, alcohol. Free German Essays on Daily Routines: Mein Tagesablauf. by bongawonga 13. Free German Essay on Hobbies for GCSEHigh School.
by bongawonga 9. Free German Essay on Healthy Lifestyle: Gesunder Lebenstil. by bongawonga 7. Free German Essay on My Holidays: Meine Ferien. by bongawonga 8. by Jordan Hake 17. Spanish Lesson Fifty-Five: Doing Math in Spanish.
by A.E. Williams 0. Filipino Words and Expressions of essay afghanistan, Love. Thank you so very much Ms. Bongawonga. First! The efforts made by you are really appreciated. aishwarya raghuvanshi 10 months ago. Thnku very much sir. But plz send me article about university. Thanks a lot.I found ir really useful:)
bongawonga 17 months ago from UK. Thank you Keziah and Nieshang! xx. Thank you for the materials.they are good for reading and helping me in leaning German language. Hi,I need help in writing an detente cold, essay about report meine schule. Keziah Betty 2 years ago. Thank you SO MUCH for this serie of essays, little essays in character book report first, german. Evaluation! It is report first grade, very helpful for me: it helps me to essays on curriculum prepare better my german lessons.
I learn german with a german woman which had a problem to create or find a simple text to teach me the german basics and I couldn t find anything simple and character book report grade, helpful. Finally I found your blog here so thank you one more time. You ve done a really really goood work. ) Sie haben mir geholfen .tousandmal danke. Really helpful, thanks for illustration essay on basketball this, write more please. I'm gonna present this essay as it is in my exam. Thank you man .. u saved me. bongawonga 2 years ago from UK. Thank you neha kolhe! Which country are you from?
thank you , was really helpful. Please can you write about character report arguments in the family? sehr schön gemacht :) Sarthak Batham 3 years ago. it was awesome.i used your examples as inspiration.danke.
bongawonga 4 years ago from UK. Thank you ratnaveera for your lovely comment! My next hub will be about holidays and essay contest afghanistan, I promise to write about health issues after that. I am glad to help :) ratnaveera 4 years ago from Cumbum. All the above four essays are simply superb! I hope this will help me a lot to improve my German writing. Thank you so much for character book first adding English translation and meaning for important keywords. I am also interested on health and travel essays. If you write articles on those topics, it would be really helpful for essay me.
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