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Win-Win / Win-Lose / Lose-Lose Situations. Original Publication September 2003, updated January 2013 by Heidi Burgess. Morton Deutsch continues his discussion of what makes people be competitive or cooperative, and describes the russo-japanese results of those choices. Win-win, win-lose, and lose-lose are game theory terms that refer to the possible outcomes of a game or dispute involving two sides, and more importantly, how each side perceives their outcome relative to impact on nature essay their standing before the game. For example, a win results when the war research outcome of essay about love, a negotiation is war research paper, better than expected, a loss when the outcome is worse than expected. Two people may receive the same outcome in love measurable terms, say $10, but for russo-japanese paper, one side that may be a loss, while for the other it is a win. In other words, expectations determine one's perception of any given result. Win-win outcomes occur when each side of a dispute feels they have won. Since both sides benefit from such a scenario, any resolutions to the conflict are likely to essay about true be accepted voluntarily. The process of integrative bargaining aims to achieve, through cooperation, win-win outcomes.
Win-lose situations result when only paper, one side perceives the outcome as positive. Thus, win-lose outcomes are less likely to be accepted voluntarily. Distributive bargaining processes, based on a principle of competition between participants, are more likely than integrative bargaining to end in win-lose outcomes--or they may result in a situation where each side gets part of what he or she wanted, but not as much as they might have gotten if they had used integrative bargaining. Lose-lose means that all parties end up being worse off. Americas Levins Morales? An example of this would be a budget-cutting negotiation in which all parties lose money. The intractable budget debates in Congress in 2012-13 are example of lose-lose situations. Cuts are essential--the question is where they will be made and who will be hurt. In some lose-lose situations, all parties understand that losses are unavoidable and that they will be evenly distributed. In such situations, lose-lose outcomes can be preferable to win-lose outcomes because the distribution is at least considered to be fair. Jay Rothman, President of the ARIA Group, Inc., describes the use of action evaluation to war research paper find non-litigious ways, i.e. win-win, of dealing with racial profiling problems in Cincinnati. In particular, he highlights efforts to engage young people. In other situations, though, lose-lose outcomes occur when win-win outcomes might have been possible.
The classic example of this is called the prisoner's dilemma in which two prisoners must decide whether to confess to a crime. Neither prisoner knows what the other will do. Impact? The best outcome for prisoner A occurs if he/she confesses, while prisoner B keeps quiet. In this case, the prisoner who confesses and implicates the other is rewarded by russo-japanese war research paper, being set free, and the other (who stayed quiet) receives the maximum sentence, as s/he didn't cooperate with the police, yet they have enough evidence to convict. (This is a win-lose outcome.) The same goes for prisoner B. But if both prisoners confess (trying to take advantage of their partner), they each serve the maximum sentence (a lose-lose outcome). If neither confesses, they both serve a reduced sentence (a win-win outcome, although the win is not as big as the one they would have received in the win-lose scenario).
This situation occurs fairly often, as win-win outcomes can only be identified through cooperative (or integrative) bargaining, and are likely to human be overlooked if negotiations take a competitive distributive) stance. The key thing to remember is russo-japanese war research, that any negotiation may be reframed (placed in thesis distress a new context) so that expectations are lowered. In the russo-japanese paper prisoner's dilemma, for example, if both prisoners are able to essay perceive the reduced sentence as a win rather than a loss, then the russo-japanese war research outcome is a win-win situation. Thus, with lowered expectations, it may be possible for essay true love, negotiators to craft win-win solutions out of a potentially lose-lose situation. However, this requires that the parties sacrifice their original demands for lesser ones.  The above definitions were drawn from: Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess, Encyclopedia of russo-japanese war research, Conflict Resolution (Denver: ABC-CLIO, 1997), 306-307, 309-310. http://www.amazon.com/Encyclopedia-Conflict-Resolution-Heidi-Burgess/dp/0874368391. Use the child by aurora levins morales essay following to cite this article: Spangler, Brad. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? Win-Win, Win-Lose, and statement for an, Lose-Lose Situations. Beyond Intractability . Eds. Guy Burgess and Heidi Burgess.
Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado, Boulder. Posted: June 2003 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/win-lose. Please contact us if you encounter problems using the new site. War Research Paper? You can also still use the old homepage.if you prefer. Expository Essay Needs? The Intractable Conflict Challenge.
Our inability to constructively handle intractable conflict is making social problem solving impossible. Find out about the problem and how Beyond Intractability can help you help address it. Concrete and realistic steps we LL can take to promote more constructive conflict processes and outcomes. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? This seminar takes a complexity-oriented approach to examining frontier-of-the-field issues related to difficult and intractable conflicts Visit, follow, or join the Conflict Frontiers Seminar (MOOS) to explore and discuss strategies for essay needs, more constructively addressing these conflicts. Conflict Fundamentals Seminar/Blog. Brief readings and videos which highlight the conflict and peacebuilding field's fundamental building blocks – ideas which help people address both tractable and intractable conflicts more effectively. Beyond Intractability in russo-japanese paper Context Blog.
Placing conflict and peacebuilding in the larger context of wise and equitable social problem-solving, this blog reports on news, opinion pieces, and argumentative essay about love, reports that illustrate the russo-japanese challenges and successful responses to argumentative essay complex, intractable conflicts. Opportunities for becoming involved in a large-scale learning community working to promote more constructive approaches to russo-japanese paper conflict. Tell us what YOU are doing that relates to these efforts! Disclaimer: All opinions expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of writing statement, Beyond Intractability, the russo-japanese war research Conflict Information Consortium, or the University of human, Colorado. Copyright © 2003-2017 The Beyond Intractability Project, The Conflict Information Consortium, University of Colorado; All rights reserved. Paper? Content may not be reproduced without prior written permission. Citing Beyond Intractability resources.
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On the Life of Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and russo-japanese, famed work concerning the development of the of the americas by aurora morales essay, Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. It is russo-japanese history’s main source of of the by aurora information on russo-japanese war research many central issues in Roman politics and intellectual history. It is divided, according to thesis financial distress Dio, into the familiar divisions of russo-japanese war research paper Roman history that remain today. The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the human impact on nature, senate and the population at war research paper, large, then the takeover of Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day. Hence, the order of the work is clear, and remains the standard ordering of Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the tendency to merely recite events. Expository Essay? He appears at the opposite of Herodotus in this respect. Russo-japanese? Dry facts and dates, while meticulously put together, make for very tedious reading.
Nevertheless, one has the worst of both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls “rhetorical commonplaces” (“Introduction” xiv), where the really useful details of warfare are left out in order that the typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on On the Life of essay love Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. What needs to be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. He is from a senatorial family from Greece, and he himself held that office. He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Hence, there are two biases from his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the Senate. Octavian, soon to be Augustus, became the russo-japanese war research paper, adopted son of the wildly popular Julius Caesar. In the literature, he is referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus.
This can be confusing to the reader. He very quickly sought to take action to claim the throne. Essay True? His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the population because he did not take action against Julius’ assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the young Augustus and war research paper, began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the writing a thesis for an essay, empire over the long term. He approached the army clumsily, and apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Most soon tool Caesar’s side against Antony. Brutus, the murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. He did not trust Antony, and hence, Antony’s pleas to him went unheeded.
Ultimately, it was the speech of the famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against war research, Antony (46: ch. Financial Distress? 5). Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters. Antony’s plan was to make certain the most powerful African provinces were under his control. Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by the Senate. The Senate will be shown to russo-japanese paper be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next.
This becomes one of Dio’s most harsh condemnations of his own class. The wording of Dio’s attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and began to destroy elements of the essay, population that might be hostile to them. Paper? They sought to appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity. The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on expository needs them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the chief leader of the murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the senatorial class so as to smooth their way to power. Dio mentions the russo-japanese war research paper, military leader Sulla and his own decimation of thesis financial distress this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Roman politics can be reduced to russo-japanese war research battles between the expository essay, senatorial class and the emperor, supported by the army. Dio does not attempt to downplay the violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence.
It is possible that this was an afterthought on Dio’s part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at war research, the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is attempting to save his reputation–or so it seems. Antony was to thesis financial distress gain power by any means necessary, this Dio makes clear. So while Octavian has the right of succession as being Julius’ adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an Gaulish army that he thought might win him the Roman power. Nevertheless the destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and Antony in russo-japanese, particular, could control the body in the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. This is always the upshot of the attacks on the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperor’s (and the army’s) plans. Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army. This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the army with lands from essay conquered peoples is central to effective political rule in Rome.
Dio is honest about the implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in war research paper, magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by this method to a thesis for an gain the trust of the frightened populous. Russo-japanese War Research? Antony and Caesar went out on campaign, as emperors should do, while the consul Lepidus, the on nature essay, third in the triumvirate, remained in russo-japanese war research, the city. Human Impact? This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in the short run as administering the long neglected city of russo-japanese paper Rome. The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in popularity. Brutus of Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an essay about love, alliance with the Senate (47: 163).
After the campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to placate their men by war research, grants of land. Child By Aurora Levins Essay? Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to be dispatched. Brutus and paper, Sextus of Sicily, sensing the divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to thesis distress take power. This will be dealt with later. Socially, Dio is war research paper a Senator, that means that one might expect him to support the political claims of his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy. In Dio’s case that is not true: he holds to the dignity of the emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to Cicero is legendary, and yet, Cicero is the hero of the Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is going against his class much of the time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to the senate is also of Dio’s devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman.
As for his writing style, it is rather dry and descriptive, but his meaning is clear. In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. The army is shown as basically fickle, demanding money and land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the bribes come through on time. In Augustus’ case, the army was a problem in the early years of the diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the child of the by aurora levins, empire itself. The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to follow. Antony, at first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rival’s behavior at Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to paper power, and the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony.
There was substantial moves to create pease between the two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the army, the “bad guy” in Dio’s narrative, and in order to do this there must be an eviction of distress many Italians to make way for the land allotments for russo-japanese war research 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to attempt to turn the population from Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in argumentative true love, Sextus, a rival who had dominated the wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements. When Octavian was master of the paper, west, it was no just Antony and Octavian, the Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to be the war leader par excellence. Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by the Roman population. Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of in mathematics Sicily in order to control Rome thourgh the manipulation of grain supplies coming from Egypt. War Research? In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to bypass Sicily. At the same time Antony was losing against the Parthians and their sometime enemy the Armenians (49: 19). While this was happening, Octavian took over impact on nature essay the government of Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to the Roman state, incuding the all-powerful city of Rome itself.
Antony began creating an “eastern empire” for russo-japanese paper himself–and is now married to needs Cleopatra–still, it should be noted, while married to paper Octavian’s sister, something that caused some problems with the always self-righteous Senate. Antony even went so far as to create his own “anti-senate” in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to writing statement for an essay the actual Roman Senate in russo-japanese war research paper, the city itself. Antony’s followers, knowing of the violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in two. It could not have been a popular move to thesis create an anti-empire in russo-japanese war research, the east with a “foreign” queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dio’s writing style emerges from dry description, and, seemingly animated by the idea of a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. This is a change for the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the education, battle of Acitum led to war research an victory for Octavian’s forces, since the fleet of Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and their attempt to move outward was defeated by Octavian. Antony’s forces on land, seeing the defeat of their boss’ naval forces, defected to that of Augustus, and child of the americas by aurora levins morales, Actium was considered the turning point in Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the last gasp of the republic, and saw, oddly enough, an alliance of paper Octavian with the Roman senate. Maybe not so odd, since the Roman population as a whole was outraged by the creation of an anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to a Grecian queen, Cleopatra.
It was only when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only was the marriage alliance that roused them to action. Dio here has no mercy on his fellow senators. Thesis Financial Distress? Octavian as a military leader is laid out in some detail in book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at russo-japanese war research paper, his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Writing? Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off. The naval forces of Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of Antony’s larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about their dedication.
The point now was to paper take the essay true, power given to him, and use it wisely. Few thought the republic was worth saving, and, given the war research, divisions in the empire, it was time to heal, and to argumentative essay love create a unified state where the wealthy would have a check placed on their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and war research, 2). Octavian feigned a lack of distress interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to russo-japanese paper convince him of his necessity to the city. He took power at their suggestion and human impact on nature, began to appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in the east–Egypt and Syria–and the west, in Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the conspiracy against Augustus and how this was used as an excuse to russo-japanese begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the former split in the empire. Unfortunately, the reader is forced to agree with Dio’s assessment, as Roman politics is never a smooth game, Dio is convincing and eloquent here.
Augustus took over all foreign and human on nature, domestic roles as Emperor, and created what one might call today a “new order. ” He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senate’s assistance, but ultimately at their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is shown taking more and more power, while all the time he posed as a passive participant. His wild popularity with the people made it possible for him to take full power while retaining the trappings of republicanism, and it is in their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Octavian’s rule. It is in this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Russo-japanese War Research? Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and that in the case of such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in fact, restore to the senate the weaker provinces, on the ground that they were peaceful and free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and either had enemies on their borders or were able on their own account to begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this was that the senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone had arms and maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. Expository Needs? This was a central reform. He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of war research paper politics. The Senate was put in its place.
It was clearly a second rate entity under the true, Augustinian monarchy. Being an intelligent statesman, he treated the senate with decorum, and it was almost like the senate was not losing power at all. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavian’s order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for their support of the new state but for their competence. Client kingships were permitted to russo-japanese paper continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the power of both people and in mathematics education, senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the power at the same time. The name of monarchy, to be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the final authority for the government devolves upon them, they must needs be kings. The offices established by the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of censor; but the entire direction and administration is absolutely in war research, accordance with the wishes of the one in power at the time.
And yet, in order to preserve the appearance of having this power by human on nature essay, virtue of the laws and war research paper, not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the child americas by aurora levins essay, people were powerful, with the single exception of the dictatorship. He sought to reform the russo-japanese, morals of the elite, something important for the maintenance of social stability. He sought to limit divorces and to reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and literature. In book 53, it is clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian. He explains that the phd dissertations in mathematics education, celebrations of his victory and his coming to power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories.
At the war research paper, same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latter’s suicide was considered a loss of minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes “In this way the government was changed at that time for the better and in the interest of greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for thesis financial distress the people to be saved under a republic. ” What is the most interesting is Augustus’ address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of sorts that would typify the sort of state that was slowly coming into being. War Research? He first, without surprise speaks of expository needs his army reforms, making a stronger and more rationalized force to deal with the paper, frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of her life. Since Dio well knows of these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of a sort. The army, by being mentioned first in statement essay, his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavian’s mind, since the russo-japanese war research paper, loyalties of the army are necessary for impact essay any kind of social reform to take place, in fact for russo-japanese paper any monarch to successfully rule Rome. Then, he speaks of mercy, the human essay, desire to unify the empire and spare the lives of his former enemies. The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is significant, since army reform speaks of war research violence and human impact, defense, while mercy, of the opposite. The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together.
Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to be unified, and again made the heart of the empire. This makes sense since the war research, real reason Antony was hated was is desire to create a new Rome in Alexandria. Hence, he is appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. He speaks of giving up his own office, of giving power back to the people, with the notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to him in trust. He did not want power, so he says, and expository, is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to the senate, while he alone takes the paper, strife-filled ones. The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Dio. He speaks of himself as a lover of peace, and goes through great pains to in mathematics education connect himself to Julius Caesar, the bringer of peace and plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from russo-japanese war research foreign conquest, distributed to the Roman population).
The fact that the civil war is over phd dissertations means the society can be unified again, bringing peace back to the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of cooperation and the unity of all classes within the empire and the city of Rome itself. In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. The populace is interested, apparently in two things, revolution and war research, tradition. Opposites? Not according to Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at financial, least using rhetoric that is paper traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in child of the americas, a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration. And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to be superior.
Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon you and to refrain from russo-japanese paper whatever they forbid, and do this not only in essay true, word but also in russo-japanese war research paper, deed, not only in public but also in private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors. Entrust the offices both of writing a thesis for an peace and paper, of war to child of the by aurora levins morales essay those who are the most excellent and paper, the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to advance the private interests of this or that man, but to keep the city safe and impact on nature, make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is very important to Dio, since the senate is the very nexus of private interest, and everything that was bad about the old republic. Russo-japanese War Research? It has proven itself incompetent in the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. Financial? The fact that Dio is russo-japanese war research paper part of this class is telling; he is no doubt speaking the truth for he breaks rank with his own class to condemn–at least the old–senate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the monarchy.
As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and phd dissertations education, its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to russo-japanese paper be brought into the realm of rule, not rejected by it. Hence one can be a senator and be pro-emperor. But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and allies of the Roman state, and true love, should not be treated as cash cows.
This is very important, since the war research, empire is based around a steady stream of revenue from the provinces. His reform of the rule of the provinces is something extremely important to Octavian, and important to the stability of the empire. They need competent and public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of his plans with respect to human on nature essay the senate, are better for the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is central to the Roman idea, and cannot be destroyed by self-interest and self-seeking. Again, this is a central recurring theme throughout this work, and its influence on later generations of historians is russo-japanese war research incalculable. The literary effect is that the human impact on nature essay, empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and paper, way of for an essay political life. The emperor is populist, the senate, oligarchic. They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and reappear throughout the history of the west. The people, according to Dio (52, pg.
219), demand royal government. They see stability and legal reform–not to mention subsidies–coming from russo-japanese war research paper centralized government. In Mathematics Education? They have had enough of the division of the self-seeking politicians, and russo-japanese paper, want the results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for child levins essay them. War Research? Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to the oligarchy, to Antony’s former supporters, politicians and senators who want a free playing field for self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in of the morales, full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus. Many of them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the political wind is blowing in russo-japanese war research, a certain direction.
The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by the notion of having full control over essay needs peaceful provinces such as Egypt. The plan and russo-japanese war research, development of rule is brilliant here, and writing a thesis for an, the brilliance of it is certainly not lost on Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the stuff of russo-japanese war research legend, in Octavian. This is not to essay needs denigrate his historical credentials, but to russo-japanese paper understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into a true historical novelist. Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and patriotism, as well as populism in office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the 21st century. Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the impact on nature, royal authority taken and paper, created by Augustus has now “become tradition. ”(53, pg.
59) which is another way of essay saying that it has worked, for something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the war research paper, goods that has withstood the test of time and created an of the americas by aurora, even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the war research, unity of the empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. Expository Essay Needs? “Such is the number and nature of the appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of paper censor; but to essay about true love the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. ” So says Dio in Book 53. The emperor appears to be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to russo-japanese permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Factions more than anything else are odious to the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the thesis financial distress, ability of the state to continue to war research paper achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is significant, for it is a central service of the Roman state, and this has been left to abandonment during the argumentative about, long period of civil wars and unrest. The roads are also a symbol of Roman unity, and hence, their repair and reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus’ plans and his public image.
The repair of the roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for russo-japanese the Roman population, they symbolize the unity and strength of the empire. After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in that part of the world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the personal bodyguard of the argumentative about true love, emperor. The praetorian guard itself. At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to the people after the russo-japanese paper, pacification of the Gallic province. Dio writes at the beginning of book 54 that the reign of Augustus was “moderate. ” This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on human on nature essay the one hand, and slavish populism on the other. He created, in russo-japanese paper, this sense, a new set of political virtues. There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there was–without a tear being shed–several more purges of the senatorial body. Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the emperor.
Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is found in the request of the senate–he always make such requests, regardless of his dominating the latter–that Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the essay about true love, understanding that it was now time to war research rationally govern what the Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of future conquests and the slaves and booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in developing it as such.
He still seeks to maintain the fiction that the senate, though purged, was an independent body. , it was not, and its independence was challenged by phd dissertations in mathematics, the demand that rule be one of russo-japanese paper stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to this challenge. This is what was going on in the city. Augustus administered the subject territory according to the customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to make any additions to the former or to extend the phd dissertations in mathematics education, latter by any new acquisitions, but thought it best to russo-japanese war research be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9) On page 323, another important piece of legislation is discussed, that against bribe taking. Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in expository, the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced. Marriage and honest dealing were encouraged, and anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for russo-japanese war research 5 years. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by essay love, decreeing that any wealthy person in russo-japanese paper, the empire is eligible for office.
And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. In this way, more and more clients of the essay, king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the understanding that money was the true route to power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class. Here, he could split the upper class over the spoils of office. When he had done this, he purged the senatorial body. For the members seemed to russo-japanese him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in a large throng; moreover, he hated not only those who were notorious for some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for their flattery. And when, as on the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and Augustus, in impact, his turn, did not wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the same oath, choose five at a time, relatives not to be included, by writing the names on tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by victorious missions to war research paper Gaul, where the endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the Alpine region were pacified again and again. A Thesis? When things got too hot in russo-japanese paper, the capital, it was easy to leave for a time, and earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference.
Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the victories over essay true them all the more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and even made daring raids into russo-japanese central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in the north. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the competence of the phd dissertations education, new reign, since the russo-japanese war research, Senate, time and again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in the western provinces before. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and granted some cities their liberties under the indirect rule of child of the americas levins morales essay Rome. Again, all of war research paper this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and system. It is precisely in this client building measures that the new system was to last as long as it did, to “become tradition” in thesis financial, the words of russo-japanese paper Dio. These measures are clearly approved by americas levins essay, our historian, as they are the very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and russo-japanese, attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and more trade and impact on nature essay, economic development.
New classes of elites developed in the provinces which werre basically creates of the empire, for their owned their success to the Roman empire. Russo-japanese Paper? Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. This is an issue that Dio returns to again and again. In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into distress poverty, he permitted “knights” or low level soldiers of distinction, to be able to russo-japanese take senatorial posts. Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,. Hence, even among some of the of the, older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the Roman knights, were given these posts, making the same a more and more popular body with the population, the army and with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and war research paper, all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by the time the reader is finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an ambiguous picture.
There is the child of the by aurora morales essay, creation of literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the senate, self seeking; the russo-japanese, emperor, populist and strong; the people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the army, ever fickle and corruptible. Ultimately, there is only one character in this description: that of the impact essay, empire itself. All the above types serve the empire in one way of another, some bad, others good. The army’s claim is based on its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to have no claim at all, except by claim of russo-japanese war research descent, a claim made absurd by Dio.
Dio ends by expository needs, implying that the empire is war research paper best served by needs, a connection between people, army and emperor, and that the senate is far from the repository of political wisdom it was created to russo-japanese paper be. Dio’s style is argumentative about true love reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in war research paper, fate, though this is far from blind fate, and in Dio’s treatment, nothing is done by chance. Virtue, and virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to everything. Man makes his own luck.
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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and russo-japanese war research Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and child levins morales Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.
Are you an entrepreneur looking to russo-japanese paper, download a free business plan? If so, you have come to argumentative love, the right place. Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the buttons below to war research paper, download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template:
In the first download, you will find documents with all of the human essay chapters, section titles, and russo-japanese section subtitles that you will need to successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is worthy of in mathematics education their investment. Russo-japanese? Chapter 2: Company and in mathematics Financing: In this chapter, the war research paper goal is to expository needs, outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the paper history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and expository how you will build, assemble and deliver them. Russo-japanese? It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Impact? Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service.
Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and russo-japanese war research Implementation: This chapter will give you an thesis financial, opportunity to set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and about true calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an russo-japanese war research paper, existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in phd dissertations, your plan.
What’s included in the template with sample text: In the russo-japanese war research second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to education, Write a Business Plan set of war research paper articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and argumentative essay true love cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an war research paper, experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over essay, time. Your plan can and russo-japanese paper will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.
If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the child americas essay limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in war research, advance, and cover every aspect of education your industry, including the war research critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. For An? Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and russo-japanese worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to expository essay needs, take it, and russo-japanese war research why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to child americas by aurora levins morales, grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.
Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of russo-japanese your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the thesis financial distress data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the russo-japanese paper web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of human on nature debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the war research tangible results in which you use to thesis financial, prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization.
Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in russo-japanese war research, the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and thesis distress who the russo-japanese paper competitors are within the phd dissertations in mathematics industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into russo-japanese war research more detail in in mathematics education, the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the russo-japanese most important points from the Financial Plan section here.
This should include your sales forecasts and child morales essay projected expenses as well as the russo-japanese war research logic behind the child of the americas projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to russo-japanese war research, turn a profit . If you are an essay love, existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the paper funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at child of the americas morales essay an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. War Research? Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to essay, Write the Company and Financing Chapter.
The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the war research future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and distress Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for russo-japanese paper, the company overview section is to provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the americas levins company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in war research paper, more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by writing statement for an essay a credible Attorney.
The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the war research most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to argumentative about true love, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the russo-japanese war research most simple to set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for thesis distress, any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and russo-japanese war research they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over essay about true, your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to russo-japanese war research, carry on impact, a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the company.”
A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to paper, sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in phd dissertations education, the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is war research, a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. A Thesis Statement For An? The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at russo-japanese the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the argumentative IRS to war research, have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).
Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and impact only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the war research paper type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to of the, use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.
For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is russo-japanese war research paper, especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of for an a venture. The question lenders and russo-japanese war research paper investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the writing a thesis essay management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the russo-japanese company. Tip: Don’t include details about argumentative about true members of the russo-japanese war research paper Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to phd dissertations in mathematics, present is the paper same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the child of the americas levins morales essay company.
As a company grows from russo-japanese war research, start-up to established business, the phd dissertations education management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of russo-japanese war research paper Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of americas by aurora morales a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for paper, the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in financial, your industry and are willing to play a role in russo-japanese war research paper, your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.
This will help you to statement for an, recruit other members of the Board. Russo-japanese Paper? Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. Essay True? As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to paper, raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is argumentative essay true, highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process.
Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. War Research? If your company is by aurora morales essay, already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of money from an russo-japanese war research, investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. Expository Essay? There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?
How much money do you need, and why and russo-japanese war research when? What do you think your company is impact on nature, worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to war research, further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the essay true financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).
To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the war research cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is in mathematics education, worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science).
However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to russo-japanese war research, facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by impact on nature analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is russo-japanese paper, worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . Human On Nature Essay? This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the war research paper value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. Impact On Nature Essay? This is a common approach in war research, the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and statement for an then placing a value on russo-japanese paper, that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk.
Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the expository needs amount of money you need by war research paper looking at expository cumulative cash flow. You also have an russo-japanese, idea of child of the americas levins how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and russo-japanese soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following:
Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to phd dissertations in mathematics education, turn a profit or get to russo-japanese, the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to writing a thesis statement for an essay, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the russo-japanese war research paper funds. The level of essay detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on paper, your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to human impact on nature, a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of russo-japanese credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over child americas by aurora levins morales, the different strategies available and how thinking about russo-japanese your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model.
It’s recommended you review the impact Quick Start guide and war research practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by education investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to russo-japanese war research, demonstrate your business has the true love potential to either take substantial market share from an paper, incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to essay, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare.
These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and russo-japanese war research vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and of the levins essay customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.
Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the russo-japanese paper culture/vision/purpose. Examples of Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over financial, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and paper “prevail over needs, serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for paper, their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and of the by aurora levins morales (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for russo-japanese paper, customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.
It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to needs, maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in war research, which it operates and at all times observing the essay highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to russo-japanese paper, adhere to financial, local and war research federal laws)?
Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and human impact keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is russo-japanese war research paper, certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by financial distress new companies that want to war research, highlight relevant history on phd dissertations in mathematics, how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and russo-japanese how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to education, build credibility for your company.
Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the russo-japanese war research paper business is on human impact on nature essay, the right track. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to distress, break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an russo-japanese, important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. Thesis? ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility.
Location is important for a large number of russo-japanese war research paper retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of statement electricity and water. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources.
If the of the americas by aurora levins facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to russo-japanese, open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of thesis financial your business. Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and russo-japanese paper Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional)
Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Of The Americas Levins Essay? Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of russo-japanese paper benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the morales prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of russo-japanese your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the essay about true features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the paper business adage that acquiring a new customer is americas levins morales essay, indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the war research reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Expository Essay? This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Russo-japanese? Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the argumentative essay about true love price you want to set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and russo-japanese war research paper one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over essay needs, time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.
Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to war research paper, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about thesis distress current competitors you can see, but you have to russo-japanese war research, be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants.
For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to of the americas by aurora levins essay, entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of russo-japanese this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is in mathematics, competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is war research paper, simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for essay, your company to russo-japanese war research paper, make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and americas by aurora levins morales managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an russo-japanese war research paper, obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the writing a thesis statement for an essay more working capital you have on hand.
Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and russo-japanese war research paper what would happen to writing a thesis for an, your ability to war research, operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to argumentative about, delivery. Russo-japanese Paper? There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to essay about love, order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is war research paper, manufactured in quantity based on impact on nature essay, expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of russo-japanese war research paper your cash on excess inventory. Some key points:
Have accurate sales forecasts. Writing Statement Essay? Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for war research paper, seasonality. Essay? Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to russo-japanese, ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is essay needs, becoming more and more important and russo-japanese paper serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of financial distress companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.
Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and distress times, which enables it to ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and russo-japanese war research with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in human impact on nature, your business and if it is war research paper, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to child morales essay, create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and paper securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology? Think about in mathematics alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of russo-japanese war research paper software and later down the needs road decide that the russo-japanese war research paper cost is child americas levins essay, too high, is there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and russo-japanese movies).
If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for argumentative about true love, your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to war research paper, protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in phd dissertations in mathematics education, practice.
For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and russo-japanese paper your employees and contractors. It is argumentative essay about true, just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to russo-japanese paper, sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by true the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to russo-japanese war research, use , so that if there is writing a thesis statement for an essay, ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to war research, describe the product roadmap and needs strategy behind it . A key concept is paper, that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product.
During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the in mathematics product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to war research, new segments in the marketplace, and writing a thesis essay expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to paper, your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the thesis financial products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and russo-japanese paper how these groups of customers are trending in terms of argumentative essay love growth and behavior.
This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to russo-japanese war research paper, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in child of the americas by aurora essay, several distinct levels.
At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Russo-japanese War Research? Another way of human essay looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for russo-japanese war research paper, your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to education, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. Russo-japanese War Research? To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to essay, get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market.
Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. Russo-japanese? You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the true love problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is war research, solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to argumentative about true, go through the russo-japanese paper time and cost of switching from essay, one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is russo-japanese war research paper, high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to education, reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of taking customers away from russo-japanese war research paper, your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for child americas morales, various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in russo-japanese paper, more detail in distress, the market growth section. Below are some of the russo-japanese paper other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.
For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on child of the americas levins essay, non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? For example, the Jobs Act of about true 2012 allowed for russo-japanese, the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in statement essay, turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to russo-japanese war research paper, connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in argumentative, an industry where political conditions have an war research, impact on the bottom line.
For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in years). Phd Dissertations In Mathematics? So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to russo-japanese war research, have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is writing statement essay, obviously important – for example, the russo-japanese war research market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market.
Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Apple and thesis distress Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in russo-japanese war research paper, terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and essay attractiveness.
A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the russo-japanese competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to enter the market and compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from expository essay needs, those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is russo-japanese, very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is phd dissertations in mathematics education, mature with little growth (so the war research paper only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a thesis for an, a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for war research paper, the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of essay true your revenue comes from a small percentage of russo-japanese paper your customers.
For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. Of The Americas By Aurora? In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and russo-japanese paper time consuming task. Time to move on to the americas by aurora morales next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:
Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the war research paper overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Thesis Distress? Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from paper, your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market.
Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. In Mathematics? There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Russo-japanese? Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the child americas by aurora morales market is russo-japanese war research, a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is argumentative about true, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for war research paper, your products/services will require you to think through several factors:
If you are going shooting for expository needs, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the russo-japanese market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for child of the americas by aurora morales, quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on paper, price, then you will want to be sensitive to impact, this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit.
There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at russo-japanese war research paper what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of by aurora levins morales essay options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business.
New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. War Research Paper? There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of argumentative about true love social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of russo-japanese war research their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from child americas levins, customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the russo-japanese war research paper adage “give more to argumentative about true, get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers.
Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in paper, turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and child of the by aurora levins sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and war research tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an phd dissertations education, exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and paper implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the writing statement for an key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.
It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Paper? These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture.
Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of human impact essay those things that can be easily overlooked. Russo-japanese War Research? Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). Writing? A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed.
Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to paper, create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the in mathematics education opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in russo-japanese paper, your company, such as: Employees and child americas by aurora morales essay staff Physical assets such as equipment and russo-japanese facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at argumentative essay about love a lower cost then your competitors?
This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in russo-japanese, order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?
Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Nordstrom’s is an example of by aurora morales essay a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is russo-japanese, a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business.
Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for essay, a partnership in the future and paper that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from expository essay, several key customers. Inking an russo-japanese war research, exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for writing for an, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Paper? For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is love, frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the paper official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters.
Writing the education financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the russo-japanese war research paper size of the market you can realistically target, and phd dissertations in mathematics education the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and paper Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for about true, Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Russo-japanese War Research Paper? Be conservative when making your estimates on impact, the number of russo-japanese units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the thesis distress following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast.
Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at paper what price point; also seeks to define the child of the americas by aurora levins production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and russo-japanese paper what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Statement Essay? For example, if you plan on russo-japanese, hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to a thesis essay, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). War Research Paper? Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for essay, most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in russo-japanese war research paper, price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the a thesis for an essay cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of russo-japanese raw materials may fluctuate based on expository essay, time of year. This is the expected number of russo-japanese war research paper units you will sell.
My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over human, time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and russo-japanese war research paper then remit the tax to human on nature, the state each year.
If the individual assumptions used for each component of the russo-japanese paper sales forecast is child of the americas levins, accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of war research hiring personnel are often the expository largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and russo-japanese war research paper you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to writing statement for an, think about the russo-japanese milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan.
For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in distress, order to generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to russo-japanese, operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to about, define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to russo-japanese, consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to of the americas, provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for war research, additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and writing a thesis for an essay sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. Russo-japanese War Research? If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate.
Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into about love groups, such legal and administrative, rent and russo-japanese war research leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of impact essay Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.
Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the russo-japanese war research business to allocate the true love costs of the war research asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in americas by aurora morales, nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months.
Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront. Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the russo-japanese war research paper use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is statement for an, expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the russo-japanese amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the needs owners. You may want to set this to russo-japanese war research paper, zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to expository essay, owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of russo-japanese paper these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is expository essay needs, defined as sales that the russo-japanese company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to phd dissertations in mathematics education, be on credit. These types of russo-japanese paper sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.
You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to human on nature, increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of russo-japanese war research paper your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in expository essay needs, mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the russo-japanese paper better your cash flow will look like. It is human impact on nature, typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks.
It is to your advantage to negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to war research, you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on writing for an essay, credit.
Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand.
The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the russo-japanese more cash is tied up in education, inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and paper business to business. A good place to needs, find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on war research, hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is human on nature, very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.
Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on war research paper, the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and phd dissertations in mathematics education are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out russo-japanese a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans.
If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is writing a thesis essay, similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at war research any time that he or she needs to.
If you are seeking a line of human essay credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the paper financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at human impact the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from paper, you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of levins essay funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to russo-japanese war research paper, take into account your company’s financial history.
Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at human impact on nature the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for russo-japanese paper, liabilities: Enter starting balance for thesis financial, Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and russo-japanese war research paper will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section.
For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from phd dissertations education, operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Think about what levers make the most impact to russo-japanese war research paper, your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into the company’s projected “bottom line”.
The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the by aurora morales information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and russo-japanese war research paper Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by writing a thesis statement for an going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of war research paper your company’s financial position at a given point in writing for an, time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into war research running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by human on nature going back to the builder in war research paper, the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the phd dissertations in mathematics Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and russo-japanese financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and impact on nature end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in paper, the Financial Plan section in financial distress, order to change the accounts affected in russo-japanese paper, the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of writing essay your business. The report here is a read-only display.
If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by russo-japanese war research editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. A Thesis Statement For An Essay? The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to cash is the company in case. This is important in determining the russo-japanese ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in expository essay, its ability to make a profit.
The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and russo-japanese war research paper expenses into on nature essay account. War Research Paper? The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by writing a thesis essay total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan.
It is by paper far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Essay? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an russo-japanese war research paper, expert or accountant to distress, help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an russo-japanese war research, appendix and a glossary of expository essay terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of russo-japanese terms will simply define the terms of your business that an expository essay, investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to paper, start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the impact essay different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in russo-japanese war research paper, mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the a thesis statement for an images to war research, view our full business examples.
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How to: critique artwork like a pro. Does the thought of an impending art critique bring tears to war research, your eyes? Does it make you feel like crying in your Wheaties?–(who came up with that phrase, anyway?) For a lot of art students, it certainly does, and can be very intimidating, especially if we’re not accustomed to human impact essay, speaking in front of an russo-japanese war research, audience. But with a little practice, you too can sound edu-ma-cated in front of others! In order “properly” to critique any given artwork (in a way that is acceptable by any institution assigning four-digit numbers to about, its classes), you need only remember the acronym “DAIJ.” It stands for war research paper “ Description , Analysis , Interpretation , Judgment ,” or as a clever student in americas by aurora essay my highschool art class once said, “Dem Apples Is Juicy.”
For an example, I have randomly chosen an artwork to critique by taking a lame, five-second-long quiz, entitled What Famous Work of Art Are You?…the result of which, for me, was Salvador Dali’s “Landscape With Butterflies.” (Okay, so I’m not crazy about war research, butterflies, but the opinion part comes later.) In order to perform a criticism on any type of art, you simply carry out the 4 steps of expository needs DAIJ–remember, it’s “Description, Analysis, Interpretation, Judgment.” Or, if you’re really lazy, you could just use this handy Instant Art Critique Phrase Generator that I came across today. Sure, no one will be the wiser… But if you really want to be intelligent, follow the darned steps already! Just as it says, first you describe the facts, including the paper, name of the work, artist, medium, etc. Writing. Next, what does the art look like, what is it made of, what objects do you see in it? What textures, shapes, or colors are there? Are the war research, colors vivid and bright, or subdued? Remember, all of for an essay these are straight facts, with no opinions added yet. If you wanna be really thorough, look for and describe each of the “elements” of russo-japanese war research paper art: line, shape, form, color, space, texture and value. (I’ve also seen “time” and “mass” included in others’ lists, but they seem superfluous to me at this point.) Be very general at first, then get more specific later on. The first step goes something like this:
In this painting, I see butterflies (obvious, but necessary). There are two of them, and they are in flight with their wings open. I also see what appears to be the essay love, side of a cliff, or a flat wall that has been broken off. It is paper, daytime because the sky is blue, but there is also another drastic light-source coming from the right side, creating harsh shadows. Expository Essay Needs. The landscape appears to be outdoors, because of the sky and because of the war research paper, vast desert in on nature the distance. Russo-japanese Paper. The colors are very intense, especially the blue and the orange. There is a strong contrast between light and dark, and overall, the lines are very defined. The viewer is either very close in proximity to human impact essay, the butterflies, or the butterflies are rather large. As the viewer, we appear to russo-japanese, be standing in front of this scene, looking straight at it, and the overall effect is realism.
Etc. *Note: Through all this, you are not supposed to say whether or not you “like” any of the things…you’re just describing at this point. Next, tell how all the answers from the description you just made are related to each other, ie, how the above facts are organized, compliment one another, or create harmony or distress. This step can often be the most confusing, because it is very similar to needs, the first and russo-japanese paper can easily overlap. A good suggestion is to think about some of the “principles” of art: movement (or rhythm), variety, proportion, emphasis, balance, contrast.
(I have seen some people list “scale” as an art principle, but again this seems redundant to me–it’s basically a more detailed word for expository what we mean by “proportion.” The Wikipedia entry on design elements and principles is russo-japanese, a valuable resource if you need specific help sorting out and defining all of these terms.) So put on your detail goggles and dive in… As I view this piece, my eyes are occasionally led over to the vanishing point on the left (in the a thesis statement, distance), but keep coming back to the focal point around the butterflies. Russo-japanese War Research. This movement happens largely because of the statement for an essay, shadow that the rock casts in that direction. War Research Paper. The blue of the sky and the orange of the rock are very intense and in mathematics bright (highly saturated), and their opposition with each other also contributes to the back and forth motion of our eyes as we view the painting. If the russo-japanese war research, blue color was not as saturated, more focus would be on the right side of the painting, it would have too much “weight,” and our eyes would linger there more.
As a result, the painting’s composition would be less balanced. Also, because the butterflies appear to be abnormally large (in comparison to what we assume is writing for an, a rock face or cliff), we do not have a concrete sense of scale or proportion. This creates an russo-japanese, interesting sense of ambiguity, and as a viewer we’re not sure if in fact we are very small, or simply lying close to expository needs, the ground, or if these are mutated giant butterflies next to a huge cliff. Who can be sure? There aren’t even any pebbles on the ground or other recognizable objects in the paintings to give us clues about scale. War Research Paper. The bottom-most butterfly shadow (as well as the statement for an, butterflies themselves , and the shadow cast by russo-japanese paper, the rock ) has a sort of glow around it caused by the lighter orange color surrounding it. This causes the impact on nature essay, shadow to paper, further “emerge” from the surface it’s supposed to be cast on, making it appear more three-dimensional and adding focus to essay about, it. We know that actual, “real-life” shadows do not have this effect, and so it creates a surreal feeling–one of the things Dali’s paintings are most famous for.
Basically, how does the painting make you feel? What does it make you think of? (Don’t say you think the artwork “sucks”…Not yet! That comes in the next step!) What do you think the artist is trying to russo-japanese war research paper, communicate to you as a viewer? But just because this step is more open-ended than the essay, previous two, and there aren’t really any “right or wrong” answers, in my opinion it’s the most important (and fun) step. I don’t feel either sad or happy when looking at this…The colors are nice ‘n bright, and butterflies usually make people feel happy, but I mainly feel “curious,” and maybe a bit confused.
I’d like to have more details about what’s going on russo-japanese war research, that are not available in the painting. The colors to phd dissertations education, me feel very cool, and even the oranges and browns have a lot of russo-japanese light “coolness” to them, but the surrounding visuals suggest a desert of some-sort, or somewhere very dry. The butterflies are painted fairly realistically, and thesis financial distress are beautiful, but the wings on both are stuck in the same exact position, like they are pinned onto russo-japanese an entomologist’s board. Not to mention their somewhat unrealistic shadows and phd dissertations education highlights. So this is what I think Dali probably did: I think he found some recently dead butterflies and wanted to paint them, like one would paint a still-life with fruit or flowers or something. But to make them less boring than a typical still-life of butterflies pinned to a board, he added an imaginary background to make it into a “landscape” instead.
That way, as a viewer, we could have the paper, sense that these creatures are alive and kicking, in their own little colorful world. To me, I think this is human on nature essay, a great concept, and a creative way of russo-japanese war research paper approaching a painting and of the by aurora morales making it more intriguing than a plain old still-life. Of course, I have no idea if this is really what Dali intended people to feel when they viewed his painting. But it’s my interpretation, and I’m entitled to give it during this stage of critique. Okay, so whether or not in the previous step you interpreted the painting as “reminding you of dog crap,” you NOW get to say whether it is russo-japanese war research paper, a success or a failure in your opinion. Writing A Thesis For An. Also, do you feel it is original or not original? Would you hang it on your wall at home? Here’s the place for all the war research paper, gut feelings that you had when you first looked at the artwork. In general, I think this is an interesting and human impact on nature unique artwork.
I enjoy the bright colors and would hang it up in my house if someone gave it to me for my birthday, but I probably wouldn’t buy it myself unless it was on russo-japanese war research paper, sale. (Dali doesn’t do “bargain basement” prices?–oh well, never mind then.) As an in mathematics education, artist myself, I appreciate the technical skill it took to create such a painting, and might be inspired to create a painting similar to this in the future, but perhaps with another subject. I certainly recognize the elements of “surrealism” that Dali’s artworks are famous for, and russo-japanese war research paper I think it succeeds, representing this category of art fairly well. (EDIT: 2012-08-07: the links below are out of date. Please allow me some time to change them. Thanks!) If you’re interested in viewing some other valuable resources about writing a thesis essay, critiquing, may I suggest: * Keystone Central School District (in PA)has a web page with some very basic instructions for teachers, which are targeted towards younger students. There’s a “process” link to steps/instructions for critique, but there’s also a link to russo-japanese war research, some really cute student art critiques written by some of their sixth-graders.
Worth the writing a thesis, entertainment if you’ve got an extra minute. 47 Responses to How to: critique artwork like a pro. Hello! I came over to check out your blog after you left a comment on my Art-o-mat entry and had to subscribe. You have some very interesting and well-written entries and create really neat art. I loved your critique examples in this particular entry.
Great article! Its so hard to war research paper, me to remember the elements and principles of design when Im critiquing. I really love the “Dem Apples Is Juicy.” I think that will help me out a lot. Thank you so much. This is needs, a really excellent resource for russo-japanese war research art students especialy, or just anyone looking to learn a little about how to look at art. For An. Personally, I find it interesting how you can see a potential meaning in something you may never have even seen before once you’re forced to actually look at everything in the artwork, even if you created the piece yourself!
Thanks for the help. I’m troubled by how the internal dynamic of the Egyptian motifs seems very disturbing in war research paper the light of the accessibility of work. Thank you lord for this website. Fantastic article! This DAIJ technique is really helpful. With it it’s much easier for me to a thesis essay, critique art. THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU for writing this article, it saved me when I had to write my critique.
Thanks a million for writing this article!! I was having a hard time determining what to put in my critique and war research paper how to financial distress, arrange them. Russo-japanese. You made it so much easier! Thank you thank you thank you!! I thank you for needs sharing this. Russo-japanese. I’m in an art class and our teacher gave us homework: to expository, critique a chosen artwork.
I don’t know what to write in my paper so I searched the Internet and found your article. War Research. It really helped me a lot. Thank you so much for expository essay this article. Im an art student at the University of Tennessee(UTC). We have been studying the nature of critique and i have had a wonderful time with learning to war research, really judge and expository essay analyze art. This post was so helpful. Russo-japanese Paper. really learning to phd dissertations in mathematics, break it down step by step. I mean..at first i was smudging them all together. I really didnt understand how some of the russo-japanese war research, steps could be done in such a way( verbally) that anyone would notice? but what helped me out was when you mentioned the needs, progression from general to more complex. Thank you and i will constantly make references to this to help myself out and will reference this to russo-japanese, some peers.
I have a sophomore review in sping of 2012 and it will determine if i can proceed through the art department.( kinda sucks because alot of it deals with space) But im trying hard. Alot of money and time has went into this major. Which right now its a pre art but will be graphic design if i make it through. Anyways im done rambling, thank you. I’m SO glad that I’ve been able to help you (and so many others!) by sharing my knowledge here…and I very much appreciate that you took the argumentative true love, time to provide feedback to me. *Cheers* from myself to war research paper, all of you! I like this. Please do a critique of graphics and drawing as well. That’s an argumentative about true, excellent idea, Rosie … You can use DAIJ to critique most anything, including drawings and war research paintings, and even things that are not “ART”! But, it *would* be a good idea to have a critique of graphics and other design projects as another example. Human Impact On Nature. I’ll put it on paper, my “to-do” list! I found your post while looking for help to write an art critique for my finals.
I got a 79% on in mathematics, the last one I did! It was horrible!! I really hope this works. It sounds like an excellent idea. I really want to say THANK YOU. Thank you for your article. Two of your links are out of date. Russo-japanese. And, the one that works is for Custom Writing, a website that writes essays for people to claim as their own (if they choose.) Doesn’t see very ethical to me, considering I am a teacher and by aurora essay face this ‘legal’ method of cheating. Penny, thanks for the notice.
I will try to update this post if I get a chance! (I wrote it so long ago…) Wow! I’ve been searching high and low for a critique and i finally found one! Yay! I’m so “A”ing this test on war research, Monday! Thx so much. Of The By Aurora Morales. This is exactly what our teacher told us but it’s much clearer. This is a perfect example and russo-japanese war research these are perfect instructions! Whoever wrote this article thank you. =D. wow! really good article,this has helped me alot with my art homework.
Thank you! great little article. Kudos to to you! As an art student myself, these guidelines for writing have saved my butt every time. I don’t think you know how helpful this is to me. i found the of the by aurora morales essay, posted material quite good to russo-japanese paper, expand my scope as an undergraduate on how to critic my painting piece as i execute them…thanks and cheers. Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. THANKS… VERY FUNNY… I will remember Dem Apples Is Juicy!
THANK YOU. I’ve been doing art coursework constantly for the past few days and I thought i had been doing the critiques wrong. I had been so now i get to go over them at least i wont be handing in the wrong things. As an art student, I’ve found it really hard to analyse and critique pieces of artwork but your article has made the subject a lot easier to understand and essay true apply. Thank you. juicy my friend. I need your critic ,analysic my art . Your critic hepl me going is far of my art… thank you a lot.
Great post. I appreciated your comment about war research paper, describing what seems obvious. I neglected to do so, thinking if it’s obvious why would I need to essay needs, do that, but learned the hard way that is war research paper, exactly what one must do! Hi, nice post! I wrote a bit on your page on a Tumblr site about art critiques — YOU SAVED MY LIFE.
1. What megan said. 2. It would seem as though this type of technical breakdown would be common and thesis financial distress easy to war research paper, come across, but it’s not because not everyone has the skill to break things down so succinctly – keeping the technical stuff solid, while also being conversational enough for writing a thesis for an those of russo-japanese war research paper us cramming at phd dissertations, the end of a hellacious semester. I’m not just a student who procrastinated, I’m a single mom whose life was turned upside down mid-semester, and russo-japanese war research paper this was PERFECT. I had to stop mid-catch-up (I only have hours to get everything to my very gracious teacher!) to say so. Thank you so much for writing a thesis for an this article!! I would never have been able to pass any of my Art subjects without you! I’m sure all of these techniques will come in hand sometime again in russo-japanese paper the future.
Please keep up the great work. Thank you so much for this article, it SAVED MY LIFE in my art class. THANKYOU I used this for my textiles homework on carolyn saxby, my teacher was no help so i turned to thisn. I had a HUGE creative block regarding art critique. You solved it. can someone please tell me, do you have to include the subtitle: Description, Analysis, Interpretation and Judgement in an art critique? Dem Apples Though. This is the right site for anyone who wants to find out about this topic. You realize so much its almost hard to argue with you (not that I actually would want laugh out loud).
You certainly put a new spin on writing statement essay, a subject which has been written about for decades. Great stuff, just excellent! I believe these tips are excellent for such dummies in paper art like me. Thank you very much. I have found your article just at the time when I need it. I have made an attempt at statement, my first critique and am expecting a report back from paper, my Tutor with the impact, comment that I have not put enough substance in.
I am certain this will help me to make my critique much better.