Order Your Own Writing Help Now -
The 50 Best Vocab Words for the ACT Essay - CollegeVine blog
business plan hlf Veronica Simpson looks at projects backed by the HLF and essay test the criteria that led to them being selected to receive funding. The Heritage Lottery Fund was established in 1994 as part of the greater UK Lottery initiative to improve sports and heritage. It’s remit was to invest in heritage-rich projects that could have a lasting impact on the economy, facilities and identities of communities and the areas they live in, whether major cities or rural towns. Since then, it has allocated well over £6bn to some 40,000 projects. The HLF’s contribution to the UK’s architecture and it river design communities cannot be underestimated, especially through the years of recession after 2008, when HLF-funded public projects were the only thing keeping many creative businesses and public-sector cultural initiatives afloat. They bumped up its contribution to funding way above the former 50 per cent benchmark to help cash-strapped local authorities transform museums, galleries, parks, libraries and theatres. Words. Just as importantly, the rigorous process of applying for HLF funding has ensured that clients, architects, content developers and designers work hard to it river, develop a convincing vision for each project so that what results is a scheme with integrity, impact and hopefully longevity. DERBY ROUNDHOUSE - Once a roundhouse for turning trains around, the building was derelict and at risk before being taken on by Derby University.
It is now the student hub. Sara Crofts is head of historic environment in HLF’s strategy and business development team. Trained as an architect, Crofts was previously an HLF committee member for six years in test the East Midlands, so she has had close contact with a wide assortment of local projects from abortion case first pitch to essay, completion even before moving to the HLF head office, just round the corner from Sloane Square. Based On Pie Chart. Crofts agrees that the essay test, funding application process has done much to encourage architects and their clients to think more strategically about each others’ points of view and unite them around the essays chart, difficult issues of how the test, proposed building and its programming will achieve its objectives. Says Crofts: ‘A lot of the thesis, time, where clients think they want to go and where they need to be are not quite the same. Architects need to words, be good at helping to get that conversation to happen.’ DERBY ROUNDHOUSE - Once a roundhouse for turning trains around, the building was derelict and at risk before being taken on by Derby University. It River. It is now the student hub.
But after 21 years much has changed, culturally and creatively, in terms of what customers want or expect. Says Crofts: ‘It’s strange to think we’ve been here for 21 years. We do look back and think: what are we funding and how do we need to change? We try and respond to the current needs of museum curators and building owners. However, looking back on all the essay test words, things we’ve done, there are a huge amount of really good, sound projects that are still delivering what they intended to deliver, 10, 15 or 20 years later.’ Her view of her favourite projects from the difference dissertation, past 20 years, she admits, is skewed towards those she knows well, especially those that she helped to deliver as a committee member. ‘Derby Roundhouse is interesting because it’s a repurposing. It was a roundhouse, where the trains were turned around. It was derelict for a long time, a building at risk a lot of our projects do address these and eventually it was taken on by the university, which was looking to expand its campus.
It is now as the test words, student hub. It has a cafe, meeting spaces, and essay on food irradiation is used for functions and test entertainments too. It is a grand space. It has that rugged, industrial aesthetic.’ Holburne Museum - This building in Bath was the centre for it river run through, years of words, argument about what a proposed extension (finally by Eric Parry Architects, 2011) should look like. Essay. The city’s first public art gallery, it is home to fine and decorative arts. Other train buildings have been repurposed on the site, such as former maintenance depots for teaching and seminar spaces, interspersed with ‘little bits of essay, modern architecture to make the whole complex work.
And because it’s right next to the railway it’s very visible as well. So there’s a beacon for Derby University as you enter the city. It’s just a nice project. It’s not grand.’ Interestingly, it’s not the grand projects that Crofts initially picks out which chimes with some research the HLF did to mark its 20th year. That found that often the database essays, smaller, community buildings have far greater impact in transforming local culture and opportunities. Test Words. ‘We’re always very conscious that the smaller, local projects, although they don’t have the headline figures, achieve much better outcomes for people in the local community because they often meet a need,’ says Croft. Abortion. ‘There’s a really nice one I was involved in essay test while on the committee: Cotesbach, in essay irradiation Northamptonshire. Essay Words. It has a fantastic archive dating back some 400 years of the Cotesbach Estate, and there’s a real interest from local people about their history and difference between australia their place. They got into a conversation with the test, landowner, who was enthused as well. Between Dissertation. National Theatre - Haworth Tomkins’ elegant refurbishment of the national Theatre is essay, noteworthy for the Hl as while the practice is cutting-edge and contemporary at the NT it’s done ‘the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work’.
Photo Credit: Greenleaf. And that became a project where they took some derelict stables that were part of the essay, Estate tiny, 19th-century, brick buildings and turned them into an archiveand it now has a ight, bright, modern cafe that’s doing really well. Essay Words. The whole place is really well used. And you would never stumble across that unless you happened to be local. But it’s brought a community together and they can do something with the resources; the archive that was previously tucked away and hardly ever used. It’s that kind of broader outcome we tend to be interested in.’ Archives have become a major strand within the HLF’s activities. Crofts relishes that the smoking solution, HLF’s involvement can start at the point where, ‘it’s just a group of people who know they have some interesting material, boxes of essay words, stuff, in the attic’, to difference thesis dissertation, the point where an entire building has been funded, commissioned and constructed to house the material. The Black Cultural Archives in words Brixton is one such project.
But nothing gets HLF funding without a solid business case. And it’s in its writing that the really gritty issues get ironed out or not. Says Crofts: ‘The better applications are the ones that anticipate what the tricky questions are and answer them in the application. They might say, we know this is difficult, but this is how we’re going to do it. It’s all focused on outcomes: heritage, people and communities. And so we ask people to tell us how they’re going to essay, meet the essay test, outcomes. And we assess on that basis.
National Theatre - Haworth Tomkins’ elegant refurbishment of the chart, national Theatre is noteworthy for the Hl as while the words, practice is cutting-edge and contemporary at the NT it’s done ‘the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work’. Photo Credit: Greenleaf. Difference Between Dissertation. ‘I think people are surprised sometimes that the outcomes are very broad, and they’re not about things like design or what it looks like; it’s about what difference it is going to make for people, communities, heritage. For us heritage is a huge range of things, including natural environments. People tend to forget that we look after natural environments and essay test words parks.’ But what role does innovation in design or presentation, or programming of based chart, space play? Crofts says: ‘Basically, people can do whatever it is that’s going to meet their outcomes and innovation has to be part of essay test words, that.
Technology being what it is, digital resources being what they are, there are much better ways of problem solving than there were.’ Astley castle - Here the ruin has been reivented, turning part of it into a unique, rentable holiday home. She cites the abortion case ireland, kind of refurbishments where ‘most people will have no idea that the building’s even changed Wilton’s Music Hall is words, a good example. We gave a substantial grant and some people might look and ask, where did it go? But the skill is in abortion case ireland the that they upgraded the facility, got a whole chunk of extra usable space, and yet retained that wonderful patina and feel. That’s skill.’ The National Theatre, too, comes in for praise, after Haworth Tomkins elegant refurbishment. Says Crofts: ‘I find that quite interesting because Haworth Tomkins is essay test, a cutting-edge, contemporary practice, but at the NT it’s done the most sensitive, philosophically perfect conservation work and you think: that goes to show that architecture these days isn’t about the conservation people over here and the new design people over there. It’s much more fluid now.’ We agree that the whole profession has benefited from smoking essay being given these opportunities to bring modern sensibilities and materials and forms to ancient spaces, to bring them back to life.
Norwich Cathedral is one that springs to Crofts’ mind here, for which Hopkins Architects added a refectory (2004) and then a hostry (2009). Test Words. Crofts adds: ‘And you wouldn’t say Hopkins Architects are conservation architects, they’re just very, very good architects, and actually that scheme is abortion studies, remarkably sensitive.’ All Souls - In Bolton the surrounding Anglican community of this huge Victorian chruch has largely changed into a largely Muslim one. Now the church is being repurposed as a multifaith community space with facilities housed in pods on three floors. Essay Test Words. Norwich Cathedral must have been one of the first of these sensitive modern/ancient interventions the HLF supported. Around the based chart, turn of the millennium, she notes: ‘There were quite a lot of high-profile projects. They have always been quite bold ideas. If you’re talking major projects, between £10m and £20m, I think you’ve almost more licence to be bold more of an expectation that you’re going to do something substantive. People do want to see where the money goes. Although there’s controversy too. Holburne Museum in Bath (Eric Parry Architects, 2011), ran for test, years as an argument locally about what the extension should look like. The Bath worthies were determined that you couldn’t possibly do something that wasn’t Bath stone.
And quite a lot of other people thought, actually, you could. We funded it. Essays Based Chart. And it’s fantastic; a gorgeous building. There’s something particularly nice about the craft element, the ceramic fins. I do remember reading technical journals at essay test words the time about the amount of effort that went into the manufacturing, getting the glaze just right.’ I propose that it has become a key part of the HLF’s role to run through, support the most refined expressions of craft and design because if it doesn’t, in test words the current climate, who will? Crofts says: ‘It’s true. I think we always feel that we have a duty to encourage people to go for quality and essay do things as best they can. It’s not about being profligate, but actually it’s about long-term interventions. So if we’re funding an extension or conversion it’s got to be robust and. last for years to words, come. And often that’s about that quality and craftsmanship.
But it’s an interesting challenge because the skills to case studies, do that kind of test, work are in short supply. Essay. All Souls - In Bolton the surrounding Anglican community of this huge Victorian chruch has largely changed into a largely Muslim one. Now the church is being repurposed as a multifaith community space with facilities housed in pods on three floors. So, at the same time, we do parallel programmes for people to take up those skills. We’re doing the third round of bursaries for Skills for the Future. People come to test, us with a proposal to set up a training programme that will require x number of bursaries over a number of essays based, years, because it’s something that’s always needed. A lot of these things are relatively niche, not offered in FE colleges. Stonemasonry is probably one of the easier skills to learn, but the words, likes of essay, millwrighting and boilersmithing are disappearing; we funded some boilersmiths in the last round of essay, Skills for difference thesis dissertation, the Future.’
I suggest that this scheme, as with so much of the essay words, HLF’s valuable work, goes completely under most people’s radar. Crofts calmly deflects that idea: ‘If you look at the research, you see that people tend to be appreciative of the work that has been funded, partly because they know that funding is coming back to their community. Database Essays. So the essay words, income that’s generated through Lottery tickets comes right back and abortion ireland supports their local community, their park. It’s quite tangible, I think. ‘We’re very proud that a lot of our funding decisions are made locally. Essay Test Words. For a scheme of anything up to £2m, the decision is made regionally; only ireland those projects asking more than £2m go to essay, the board. The bulk of projects are decided by those in the local area, which is, I think, to our credit. Middleport pottery The pottery built in Stoke-on-Trent in 1888 was given listed building status in the Seventies.
By then six of the seven bottle ovens had been demolished and smoking the surviving one was given its own listing. ‘We’re also proud that we manage to essay test words, spend a great deal of money outside of London. Database Essays. We see other funders being criticised for being Londoncentric. But we look at our capital spend and try to make sure that every area gets a reasonable share. So where is the focus going in the next decade? Have we reached a point where all the ancient churches and test theatres and libraries in need of refurbishing are taken care of? No, she laughs. ‘The need is so huge in terms of run through, building stock and essay the potentialwe are never going to get to the point where we’ve done everything,’ she says. ‘I think we can say there’s nothing we don’t fund so long as it meets the outcomes.
From time to time are targeted programmes or campaigns where we say: there’s a real need to do something about x. For example, we did that with parks.’ In 1996 the HLF teamed up with the Big Lottery to launch Parks for essay irradiation, People. Having transformed thousands of civic green spaces, the current targeted campaigns include First World War: Then And Now, and Great Place, which is, she says, ‘part of the Cultural White Paper. That’s about test words strategic planning for heritage and culture, working at local-authority level. Based On Pie Chart. We’ll see how that goes. We’ll see what other ideas it generates. We try to be quite responsive.
A lot of the work of the department I’m in is about trying to understand what the sector is doing, where it’s struggling. ‘During this current strategic framework, from the past three or four years, we’ve realised that capacity is a really big issue in essay test words the sustainability of large organisations that run a lot of heritage projects most of the HLF’s funding goes to voluntary bodies of some description. It’s essentially a way of helping organisations to sort themselves out, so they can manage their bit of heritage better. We’re talking about companies that have been around for a few decades whose governance isn’t quite what it could be, and they need to database essays, think about words financial planningthey can potentially apply for abortion case, some money to look at themselves as an essay test words organisation, to say “we need to do this, we need to look at mentoring”.’ Astley castle - Here the ruin has been reivented, turning part of it into a unique, rentable holiday home. This initiative ‘came about smoking solution because when austerity kicked in, organisations thathad been more or less OK because their visitor numbers had been reasonable, and maybe had support from local authorities to essay words, keep them ticking over, sudden found that local authority money had disappeared. Then visitor numbers dropped and the business plan looked shaky. So we’re saying: “If you need to reinvent your business plan, we’ll help you to difference between thesis australia, do that”.
And part of that was about protecting our investment, because having got a museum or a site up to a good standard, it would be crazy then to let it deteriorate. So it was a dual thing to make sure the good projects carry on test words, and are. sensibly organised for the 21st century.’ Supporting cultural infrastructure, for the HLF, is clearly every bit as important as the essays based, design and architecture if not more so. Says Crofts: ‘If you look at how we phrase our strategic framework, it’s embedded in all our thinking: this idea that we are investing in making a lasting difference for heritage and people. I guess it’s quite easy for essay, people to think we are just talking about heritage, but actually we’re talking about people. Essay Irradiation. It’s about making communities better, about giving people opportunities. Heritage is a vehicle, it’s a mechanism, by which you achieve that. It’s very good that we fix buildings or put the roof back on or whatever it may be, as part of a project, but it’s the essay words, difference that makes to a community that’s much more valuable. It’s one of the challenges that heritage as a concept faces. Many people, when they think of heritage, they think of stuff.
Often we are quite challenged to make people realise that what we’re looking at is cultural heritage.’ Given all these other, less tangible but vital elements, how can architects and designers best serve the aims of Crofts and her team? ‘It’s actually the ability for architects to do the problem solving, to work out how to turn a problem into an opportunity, that is a key thing; being able to see past the piles of pigeon poo and the rotten floorboards and be able to share that vision with others.’ Immediately she thinks of examples Bolton All Souls, a ‘stupidly big’ Victorian church, managed by the Churches Conservation Trust (CCT), whose surrounding Anglican community has now transformed into a largely Muslim one. The CCT joined forces with the Muslim Community Centre next door to repurpose the it river, church as a central, multifaith community space, with facilities housed inside a series of pods, on three floors and essay keeping the chancel intact so it still looks Anglican. Thesis. ‘It’s quite a good example of a project that, if you talk to non-architects, they are going to find it quite difficult to essay words, imagine the smoking, interior of a church containing these,’ she says. ‘The skill of the architect is the sketch, the essay, explanation, the sharing of that vision, so you can convince people not only that it’s doable but also that it’s a good idea. It’s won several awards. It’s a bit unusual and was good fun as a project. ‘Astley Castle, too, is an exciting reinvention of dissertation, a ruin turning part of it into a tasteful, unique, rentable holiday home. There’s also storytelling; architects are good at storytelling, and that adds to the whole presentation of the site, such as Middleport Pottery, by FCB studios. The way the architects now talk about what they did there is words, almost as poetic as the history of the building itself. As part of getting the database essays, contractors to words, understand what they were trying to do, they gave them a story book. Essays Based. That was a really nice idea: to try and essay test share the database essays, sympathy and sensitivity that the essay words, architects felt about the place with the people who would be there, bashing it about, and trying to get over smoking solution, that idea that the patina and the ceramic dust and essay these things should stay, and shouldn’t be neatened up.’ Inclusivity and widening access are major areas the case, heritage sector is not so good at, according to the 20th anniversary report. Crofts admits this, but says: ‘We spend quite a lot of time and effort gently encouraging the sector to tackle these issues.
With Skills For The Future, we said this year we are particularly looking for how to diversify the workforce, how to essay words, get young people interested in this opportunity? And parts of the studies ireland, sector really responded.’ So there’s the HLF again, quietly looking after bits of our cultural heritage that need attention. Low profile, yes, but as we now know, the test words, long-term consequences of this behind-the-scenes HLF work can be very powerful. Essay. Brand on a mission: IKEA team up with NASA to essay test words, imagine homes on Mars. MAP and essay irradiation Brizi launch product to protect babies from pollution. Discover content from our architecture and design magazines. Essay Test. Subscribe to our free weekly email newsletter. Working on something exciting?
Submit your project to Design Curial.
Need Help Writing an Essay? -
Analyse, Explain, Evaluate 22 essay question words and how to
kinder homework This HUGE Homework Bundle includes ALL of my monthly Kindergarten homework packets! That is 11 months of homework from August-June with 44 Weekly Homework Packets that you can use your entire school year! This homework bundle is just what you need to send home effective homework that includes detailed instructions for at home use and involves little to no prep for you! A HUGE time saver! Each month is test, broken down into weekly homework packets. Each homework packet includes: • The Common Core. KINDERGARTEN HOMEWORK MEGA-BUNDLE UPDATED FOR 2017-2018 Use these resources to create easy-to-use Homework Packets for your students. Edit the text to studies meet your learners specific needs! (editing is only available in this bundle) See how to set up your learners' homework folder here! Make homework successful in your classroom with these homework tips! ____________________________________________________________________ This MEGA-BUNDLE includes EDITABLE VERSIONS of. Kindergarten.
Kindergarten Homework BUNDLED - Aligned to essay words CC (English and Spanish Directions) This HUGE Homework Bundle includes ALL of my monthly kindergarten homework packets with ENGLISH SPANISH directions! That is 11 months of homework from August-June with 44 Weekly Homework Packets that you can use your entire school year! This homework bundle is just what you need to send home effective homework that includes detailed instructions for at home use and involves little to no prep for you! A HUGE time saver! Your Spanish speaking parents will also feel welcomed and. Mcgraw Hill Wonders Kindergarten Homework Bundle Units 1-10. Here is the bundle for essays chart ALL of essay, my homework packs! These will make it easy on you to have homework that practices the skills you are teaching each week in the Wonders program! There are five pages for each week.
The skills match what is being covered in the Wonders program including letters, grammar, and sight words. Each set follows the same layout. Great for not only homework but small group or pages for early finishers. This work is my original work. Database Essays? Approval by essay test words or endorsement of this. Kindergarten Homework - Weekly Family Games - Editable - One Year Bundle. Kindergarten Homework - Weekly Family Games - Editable - One Year Bundle - ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Included in this download is: This is a bundle of the essay solution Simply Kinder Editable Homework Units. Each Quarter Includes 8 weeks of homework and each week includes: - Homework Cover Page . unique graphic in corner for essay words each week . editable # . reading log where parents initial and essay solution student does a small report . Kindergarten Homework Activities - Year Pack. Homework activities to keep your students busy for essay test the entire school year- aligned with the Common Core State Standards. Pick from 165+ engaging activities.
Choose activities in the order of your curriculum map. THIS PACKET CONTAINS ACTIVITIES, NOT WORKSHEETS! Parents love having meaningful activities to essay do with their children, rather than trying to get them to sit and do worksheets. When asked about test words my homework folder one parent said, I loved Mrs. Based On Pie Chart? Toelupe's homework folder. It is essay test words, so. Kindergarten Homework -This set of homework includes a year's worth of homework packs for case kindergarten. Each weekly kindergarten homework set comes with an assignment sheet and four pages of essay test, homework (Math, Language/Foundations, Reading, and Writing).
It is also Common Core aligned. 40 weeks of weekly kindergarten homework: 4 days for each week: -Nightly- Reading 10 minutes/Reading Log -Monday- Math -Tuesday- Language/Foundations -Wednesday- Reading -Thursday- Writing This product outlines. Kindergarten Homework Packet - BUNDLE! - English and Spanish - Aligned to abortion CC. This Kindergarten Homework Packet is bundled to include ALL months of homework (August through July) in both English and Spanish! Save more than 25% by buying the bundle. Essential for all teachers, this Homework Bundle involves little to no prep with detailed instructions for ease of home use! Strategically aligned to cover most, if not all, common core standards. Includes reading, writing, language and math! Month-by-month and test week-by-week homework exclusively designed for the real Kindergarten Homework Calendar EDITABLE. As per customer request these monthly homework charts are now editable.
You can even save the information you entered (just save under another file name). ***Before you buy, I strongly suggest that you try the free sample to essays based chart ensure this is essay words, what you need*** CLICK HERE TO SEE THE FREE SAMPLE The calendar is customized for smoking essay the 2017-18 school year (August through June), and include activities for each weekday, all of them aligned with Kindergarten Common Core. Includes letter for parents. Kindergarten Homework for the Year. This is a bundled set of my Monthly Homework/Morning Work packets. Each month is test, seasonal themed and includes 20 language arts and 20 math pages. The skills increase with difficulty each month, just as they would in your own classroom. This can be used for homework or used as morning work to reteach and practice skills. Solution? I have used these all year in my classroom.
My parents love that they are predictable and test words reinforce skills that have been taught in class. If you would like to abortion case see pages. Kindergarten Homework - Reading BUNDLE. Reading and essay test words phonics worksheets, sight word practice, take-home books, and family reading games for beginning readers at Guided Reading Levels A-E! ------ As a Kindergarten teacher, I struggled to find literacy homework that was engaging and family-friendly. Essay Solution? I also wanted to test words differentiate the case studies homework assignments I gave my students.
But I couldn’t find a way to do so without spending hours preparing materials! I knew I wanted to essay words give my students and their families tools to facilitate at-home. Kindergarten Homework or Morning Work - 36 Weeks. There is a page per week. (Monday-Thursday) It is Common Core aligned, but does go beyond Common Core into some of the database essays first grade standards. Topics Include:
Capital vs. Essay Words? Lowercase. Matching the Picture to the Word. Spelling CVC Words. Concepts of run through, Print. Larger, smaller, taller, shorter. Larger Number vs.
This packet includes 26 pages of words, alphabet practice and 26 pages of numbers 0-10 practice. It is irradiation, perfect for essay words homework during the dissertation australia first month of test, school. It could also be used as morning work. Print the pages back to back and your homework is ready for the entire month. This packet coversalphabet handwriting letter recognition beginning sounds rainbow writing number writing number recognition counting objects ten frames missing numbers/number order shape Follow me on TpT to be notified. Kindergarten Homework Wonders Edition BUNDLE. This packet contains homework that follows the progression of the Wonders reading program. In each Kindergarten unit there are three weeks. This packet contains homework for all three weeks. There are homework pages for Monday-Thursday, with a half of a sheet for each day! It is a great activity that parents and database essays students can do every night that will function as a quick check!
The academic content builds upon each other with each successive pack! In addition to phonics, it also includes sight. Thank you for essay test your interest in Primary Graffiti’s Year-Round Homework packet! ***Update: This file now includes blank year-round calendars made editable in the form of studies, a PDF with highlighted fields.*** This has been my home learning method for several years. I’m pleasantly surprised by how effective the words home learning as been for students with limited resources and low parent involvement. Parents have been receptive of meaningful home learning which is an essay, extension of our daily lessons and. Weekly Kindergarten Homework Packets. This file contains 32 weeks worth of Kindergarten homework. It has letter work, sight words, writing, spelling, math. Later weeks have reading comprehension DIBELS-like practice. Test? I have been using them for 3 years since they have been working out great, I decided to share.
Also available with D'Nealian handwriting practice in a separate product! This homework packet reinforces the language arts/literacy, writing, and math skills that are learned in essay irradiation the Kindergarten classroom. Essay? I created the homework pages for families to complete together with minimal supplies (most activities require only solution a pencil). In this packet, you will find: - 2 versions of Monthly Reading Logs - Sight Word Flash Cards - Letter (upper and lowercase) Flash Cards - Number (numerals and 10-frames) Flash Cards/Matching Cards - 11 blank. Kindergarten Homework Take Home Parent Communicator Folders. Start the school year off right with a complete homework take-home folder.
Parents will know what their child will be learning when you send home this complete home-to-school communication folder. Essay? Choose from a variety of covers to essay it river be used in clear view binders or print the Homework labels to adhere to essay words the front of a folder. Included in it river this packet Covers Alphabet chart color black/white (2 options) Letter and Number Formation page Color and test shapes pages Sight word list (includes an. Kindergarten Homework Packets: Full Year Bundle. Save 50% with this complete bundle. Between Australia? Are you looking for a Developmentally Appropriate Option to Kindergarten Homework? Extend the learning at home by essay test sending home monthly homework packets that are strategically linked to the Common Core Standards. Your students and parents alike will love the easy to use formats, engaging activities, and run through ease of homework management. This packet includes contains all 16 Packets in test words our Kindergarten Series.
And ALL 16 packets have two versions, English and. Kindergarten Homework FULL YEAR BUNDLE. This BUNDLE includes 10 months of homework for Kindergarten. 4 weeks included in each month and homework is labeled Monday-Thursday. Each week is consistent so students can work on it independently (helpful for parents). On Food? Homework skills include: I can write my name.
First Sound Fluency (at the beginning of the year) CVC Word Family Practice High Frequency Word Practice Counting Composing Numbers 11-19 Writing Numbers Word Problems Comparing Numbers I have also included hundreds charts. Kindergarten Homework BUNDLE (164+ bracelets with QR codes) This no grading homework for Kindergarten is test words, ¦LOVED¦ by Kindergartners, and empowers parents to help their children practice new learning at home! After beginning a new topic, place the related bracelet on each student (or their backpack) to take home. The QR codes on each bracelet link to 1-2 educational practice videos about the Kindergarten lesson, and the Science, Social Studies, Math homework bands also link to simple home review activities (known as the SECRET GAME--which the. **UPDATED FOR 2017-218** This file IS NOT EDITABLE. Database Essays? FREE UPDATES EVERY YEAR! These monthly homework charts are customized for words the 2017-18 school year (August through June), and include activities for each weekday, all of them aligned with Kindergarten Common Core. Includes letter for parents explaining how it works.
The first letter says to choose three activities per ireland week, while the essay test words second letter says to complete all the assignments (per customer request). Studies Ireland? Use the one you prefer. Basically, Kindergarten Homework Calendars 2017-2018 (Free Yearly Updates) This file contains a Kindergarten homework calendar for essay test each month of the essay school year, August through July. The activities listed are quick and non-stressful for both students and families. Essay? Each day of the month, including weekends, suggests one activity for Math or ELA that will provide the based on pie student with an opportunity to review, practice, or enrich a standard, foundational, or life skill. Words? The weekday activities are aligned with Common Core State Standards for Kindergarten students. Kindergarten Homework Packets--The Complete Set. You and your students will love these engaging and essays on pie chart enjoyable common core aligned homework packets all year long!
Throughout the school year, your students will practice identifying and writing all capital and lowercase letters of the alphabet; explore beginning, middle, and essay ending sounds in depth; practice with rhyming words and breaking words into sounds; build fluency with reading common sight words; practice writing and using sight words in sentences; write and draw to express their. Kindergarten Homework Packets by the Month- Common Core Aligned. Kindergarten Homework Packets by the Month- Common Core Aligned Each week has four academic activities for the student to essay it river run through complete as well as skills such as tying shoes and reciting his or her phone number and address. Essay Words? Academic activities include: writing capital and lowercase alphabet, writing name and based chart last name, writing sentences, responding to literature using comprehension skills, identifying beginning, middle, and ending sounds (single sounds, digraphs, blends) clapping and test words counting. Kindergarten Homework Made Easy!
A complete, kindergarten homework system for the entire year with editable templates, a built-in newsletter, and minimal preparation! Easy for database essays teachers and parents to manage! Who is This For? Kindergarten teachers wanting to simplify their homework preparation while making it more meaningful for students. Essay Test Words? What is it river, Included? The Homework Made Easy pack is designed to make homework easy for teachers to prepare, meaningful and relevant for students, and.
Kindergarten Homework Activities (Spanish Version) - Year Pack. This product is the Spanish translation of my Kindergarten Homework Folder. It contains the same activities as the English version. It is written for Spanish speaking parents who have children enrolled in an English speaking classroom. THIS PACKET CONTAINS ACTIVITIES, NOT WORKSHEETS! Parents love having meaningful activities to test words do with their children, rather than trying to get them to database essays sit and do worksheets. Essay Words? Keep your students busy with common core homework activities for the entire school.
Kindergarten Homework- September (English Only) Aligned to CC. This September Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and database essays requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and test words will continue your students growth in learning at home! Included in this September Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to smoking solution follow directions with. FREEBIE! Kindergarten Homework Packet. FREEBIE!
Kindergarten Homework Packet Includes: Letters High-Frequency Words Numbers 0-20 Counting to 100 Also includes links to test make your own Listening Centers! I hope we can help lots of Kinders with this pack! Sally Landers. Kindergarten Homework- September (English Spanish Directions) Aligned to CC. This September Kindergarten Homework will allow your Spanish speaking parents to be able to help their child continue to learn at home because this homework comes with both ENGLISH and essay run through SPANISH directions!
This September Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of test words, homework activities and requires very little prep! Everything in this homework is essay it river run through, designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in. Kindergarten Homework- January (English Only) Aligned to CC. This January Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of essay test words, homework activities and requires very little to essay on food irradiation no prep! Everything in this homework is essay words, designed to it river run through meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in learning at home!
Included in this January Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to follow directions with very. Kindergarten Homework- April (English Only) Aligned to CC. This April Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in essay words learning at home! Included in database essays this April Homework: • 5 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of test, Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to follow directions with very. Kindergarten Homework- October (English Only) Aligned to CC.
This October Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and requires very little to no prep! Everything in based chart this homework is designed to essay meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in essay learning at home! Included in essay this October Homework: • 5 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to follow directions with very. Kindergarten Homework- March (English Only) Aligned to CC. This March Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and requires very little to no prep! Everything in database essays this homework is designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in learning at home! Included in this March Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to essay test follow directions with very. WONDERS Kindergarten Homework ALL UNITS!!
SMART START TO UNIT 10. These homework sheets have been very rewarding to create and they provided my students a chance to practice the database essays skills taught each week. I have tweaked them throughout the year, and while putting them together in this bundle. I hope these help you out this year and please let me know if you have any suggestions for improvement. Thanks So Much. Essay Words? Amy Lily’s Land of Learning. Kindergarten Homework- February (English Only) Aligned to CC. This February Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of smoking essay, homework activities and requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is essay, designed to between dissertation meet the essay test Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and database essays will continue your students growth in learning at home!
Included in this February Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to follow directions with. Kindergarten Homework- May (English Only) Aligned to CC. This May Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and essay test words requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the studies ireland Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and essay test will continue your students growth in learning at essay run through home! Included in this May Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to essay follow directions with very little. UPDATED: 2/7/16**I have now included pages that you can customize your sight words for each week.** Tired of giving worksheets? Want activity based homework? Don't want the stress of doing bags and keeping up with a system? Here is the perfect product for you! **Common Core Aligned** This product includes 40+ weeks of essay, homework, thats 200+ activites. There are additional weeks of hw for holidays! :) Included in this product are: -One page detailing the weekly homework for every.
Kindergarten Homework Pack 2016-2017. This product includes EVERYTHING for a Kindergarten homework folder. There are calendars for words each month of the difference thesis dissertation australia school year so that you can have a schedule to follow when providing homework for your students. I used this set last year in my class, and I loved it! My kids were very successful and test only spent 5-8 minutes each evening completing their homework. It was great practice for them and allowed them to learn responsibility. There is one worksheet each night and covers Language Arts, Kindergarten Homework for the Year. This resource contains monthly kindergarten homework packets for studies the entire school year.
Homework is included for test words the following months: August, September, October, November, December, January, February, March, April and on food May. These monthly homework packets focus on essay a variety of skills for your kindergarten learner: math, reading, science and social studies. Color and black and abortion studies ireland white options are included. Make the year easier by not having to worry about finding or creating homework! It is. Kindergarten Homework- November (English Only) Aligned to CC. This November Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and test requires very little to essay no prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in learning at essay home! Included in this November Homework: • 3 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to essay solution follow directions with.
KINDERGARTEN HOMEWORK | SEPTEMBER UPDATED FOR 2017-2018 This document includes an easy-to-use Homework Packet with an Instruction/Calendar Page (with editable dates only), corresponding work pages and Reading Log. Essay Test Words? The activities include: alphabet, name writing, rhyming, counting, numbers, syllables, sight words and more! See how to set up your learners' homework folder here! Make homework successful in your classroom with these homework tips! Buy the BUNDLE and SAVE! You will also be able. Kindergarten Homework Packet Bundle (jan-May) This is homework packet for the months of on pie, January through May. If contains a different packet for each week. Each weekly packet contains a tic-tac-toe board with 8 assignments along with the assignments.
My students are given one week to words complete each tic tac toe board. Skills included in this packet are: missing numbers activities, counting and writing numbers to 100, ordinal numbers to essay it river run through 5th, number fluency, beginning and ending sounds, rhyming words, counting by tens, recognizing dimes, Kindergarten Homework- December (English Only) Aligned to CC. This December Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and essay test words requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the run through Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in learning at home!
Included in this December Homework: • 3 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. Test? • Easy to follow directions with. January Kindergarten Homework-Morning Work. January Kindergarten Homework or Morning Work. Smoking Essay Solution? This packet includes 20 pages of essay words, language arts practice and database essays 20 pages of math practice. It is essay test, perfect for homework or morning work. Print a language arts page and a math page back to studies ireland back and your homework is ready for the entire month. Essay Words? This packet covershandwriting handwriting c-v-c word work syllables ending sounds word families -ag -am, -an, -ap, -at, -ed, -en, -et, -ig, -in sight words: what, are, now, is, how, find, this, will, be, go, for, Kindergarten Homework- October (English Spanish Directions) Aligned to database essays CC. This October Kindergarten Homework will allow your Spanish speaking parents to be able to essay test words help their child continue to learn at based home because this homework comes with both ENGLISH and SPANISH directions! This October Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and requires very little prep! Everything in this homework is designed to meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten.
The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in. Kindergarten Homework or Morning Work - A Whole Year! This product contains 156 pages of homework or morning work for each month of the school year for kindergarten students (each month contains 16 days of essay, homework with the exception of December which contains 12 days). Essays Based Chart? Have the students complete 1 page everyday from Monday to essay Thursday. Each page contains reading, writing, and irradiation math practice that aligns with the common core standards. This product was created by Miss Mack's Kindergarten. Graphics provided by www.mycutegraphics.com. This work is.
Kindergarten Homework- August (English Only) Aligned to CC. This August Kindergarten Homework includes TONS of homework activities and requires very little to no prep! Everything in this homework is words, designed to run through meet the Common Core Standards for Kindergarten. Essay Test Words? The activities included are fun, hands-on, engaging, and will continue your students growth in learning at home! Included in this August Homework: • 4 Weekly Homework Packets • A list of Common Core Standards students will practice with each homework packet. • Easy to follow directions with very. Kindergarten Homework Bundle- Sept. thru Dec. This is homework packets for essay the months of September through December . Sept-Nov. packets contains four tic-tac-toe boards with 8 assignments on test words each board. The Dec. packet contains 3 boards with 8 assignments on each. Database Essays? My students are given one week to complete each tic-tac-toe board. Skills included in essay these packet are: numbers to ten, counting sets, handwriting, what comes first (numbers), what comes next (numbers), rhyming, Missing numbers, Missing letters, Patterns (ab,aab,abb), sight.
At Home Learning: Kindergarten Homework Bags. I hope that this set of kindergarten homework is smoking essay, helpful to you and your students! I use it with my kindergarten students and have been impressed by essay test words the amount of student/family participation. Each week students will bring home their homework bag (you could use a folder, a gallon-sized ziplock, or a plastic pouch of some sort). In their bag, students have 1 recording sheet where they color in based a picture each time they complete a task/play a learning game.
They also have the words materials. KINDERGARTEN HOMEWORK | OCTOBER UPDATED FOR 2017-2018 This document includes an easy-to-use Homework Packet with an Instruction/Calendar Page (with editable dates only), corresponding work pages and Reading Log. The activities include: alphabet, name writing, rhyming, counting, numbers, syllables, sight words and more! See how to set up your learners' homework folder here! Make homework successful in your classroom with these homework tips! Buy the BUNDLE and SAVE! You will also be able.
Dibels- Beginning Reading Fluency (kindergarten homework and fluency program) NEW Lower Price. Building fluency in kindergarten with the difference thesis basic reading fundamentals using these homework sheets and supporting classroom sheets supports Dibels and MAP testing. These interactive homework fluency sheets cover phonics, phonemic awareness, sight words, and alphabet knowledge. When I moved to a new school this was the test only thing I insisted we use because it is so effective. These sheets take only smoking essay solution 5-10 minutes of essay, time in database essays the classroom but have HUGE results.
The product includes. Please note that you're heading to a part of our site that's not yet optimized for essay words mobile.
Need Help Writing an Essay? -
MyCollegeSuccessStory com: Top 10 Essay Exam Key Words
What I Can Do For My Country Essay. With a staff of over 2,000 American writers and customers in over 45 countries, Ultius is the global leader in writing, editing, and business writing solutions. Your Deadline, Our Priority. This company is not bad. They have written 5 essays for test me. I would say 4 out of chart, 5 was well written. They get my papers back in a timely manner for the most part. The revision is the problem. You can get your paper revised but it will usually run after your due date so you find yourself doing some editing.
The priceS are pretty standard. I trust these guys and plan on using them when I need to meet a dead line but may have my hands too full. Levitria B. reviewed Ultius on Jan 26, 2015 via SiteJabber Click to see the words, original review on an external website. ? Learn more about our commitment to verified reviews. Why choose Ultius when buying essays? Ultius deeply understands your frustration when it comes to buying essays for reference use. Abortion Case Ireland. There are a million options but only a few of them are reputable. While many other service options fail to essay test, offer reliable support and hire writers from foreign countries, Ultius is abortion case studies refreshingly different.
Since 2010, our platform has been connecting customers with an expert selection of essay writers that are credible and test words internally verified as being native English speakers. When purchasing essays for database essays model use, we offer free amenities to ensure that your experience is words satisfactory. From free revisions, editorial review of your final sample, robust security to originality scans, we have all the tools to help you get the best purchased essay. Essay Irradiation. We also offer an unmatched level of convenience through a mobile-friendly site, time saving features and a commitment to your deadline. Finally, the essay words, Ultius difference truly comes from our strong base of American writers as well as the fact that our service is trusted, reviewed and verified. Free Amenities When You Buy Essays. With any model essay purchase, you receive various amenities that are free of charge. Our free revision policy allows you to on food irradiation, make changes and modifications after the order is completed. That’s right - if you’re not happy, we will gladly work through your feedback to make sure we get your original instructions right.
Plus, Ultius employs a 24/7 staff of essay words, dedicated editors to database essays, make sure that your final order is reviewed internally before we send it out. This internal review includes a free Copyscape originality scan to make sure that it is 100% original. If it doesn’t pass, we don’t send it out. Ultius is also proud to offer an extremely convenient user experience and process when you are buying essays. Our platform is mobile and tablet friendly so that you can place, manage and review orders on the go.
The interface is designed for essay test your device and ensures you never miss a beat. Our support team is also available 24/7 via text, email, live chat and phone. With us, you will never get stuck without on-demand help. The process is also designed to be quick and essay on food irradiation simple: The Essay Ordering Process Input the sample order details; Confirm your instructions are accurate; Finalize payment using PayPal or any major debit/credit card. It’s that simple. American Essay Writers and test Top Quality. Our commitment to having talented writers is the staple of our platform. While lots of other sample writing services hire foreign writers, we only hire Americans that are native speakers. It River Run Through. In fact, our hiring selection process is so thorough and rigorous that less than 3% of all applicants end up getting hired.
We assure you that our writing staff is tried, tested and subject to continuous improvement. Writer Stats Fluent in hundreds of essay subjects; Trained in test words all modern citation styles: MLA, APA, CMS, Turabian and others; Topic specialists for your discipline. Our commitment to quality would not be complete without the fact that all orders get thoroughly reviewed by editors first. Essay writing services from Ultius are trusted, reviewed and between australia verified. Turn to trusted third parties like the BBB and essay words SiteJabber and you will see hundreds of verified reviews from customers like yourself who bought essays. We are accredited with the Better Business Bureau and have an “A+” rating. Even if your order goes awry, we have a strong track record of resolving issues and making things right.
To protect you further, we use McAfee secure to scan our site on a daily basis. This helps protect your private information. Ultius is the global leader in on pie chart consumer writing services because we believe in doing things a bit differently. Benefits of Buying Essays from Ultius. If you came to this page, it means you are looking for help with completing your essay. While you considering whether to buy essays, it’s a good idea to essay words, consider the benefits of using a custom sample writing service like Ultius. Our model services can surely give you a strong advantage when it comes to completing your own work.
Consider the essay solution, fact that our service will save you precious time. Extra time will allow you to focus on other important things. By having a clear model to guide you, you will know where to focus on in terms of essay words, direction, sources, organization and general clarity. Getting expert help is between thesis another strong benefit. Most colleges and universities even have dedicated writing help labs on campus for you.
Our platform connects you in a digital environment where you will have access to experts you won’t find locally. Finally, utilizing third-party by buying essay guidance will benefit your future for the better. At Ultius, our tagline is words “on your schedule.” However, it’s not just a tagline, it’s also our promise to you. We deeply understand how important time management is for busy individuals. We also understand how beneficial it can be when you use trusted services to essay irradiation, help you get more out of essay test, your day. When you use model writing services from Ultius, we save you time by doing the heavy lifting.
Not only do we take the difference between thesis dissertation, time to digest and translate your instructions into a final sample, but we also provide insight into how the work should be done in essay words terms of essays on pie, sources, addressing the core question and properly citing the required sources. Another great benefit is the final outcome you will get on your essay once you get expert sample writing help. Each and every one of essay words, our writers, editors and essay support team members are trained in essay test words their craft to it river run through, make sure that you get a positive outcome. You can spend days and even weeks finding an expert essay writer in your field through Craigslist or your local campus. But those channels are not secure and proven to connect you with the writer you need, right now. Everyone needs expert help and our writers are trained veterans in essay words the craft ready to studies ireland, assist you after you have made your sample essay purchase decision. Using Ultius to help you with your essay writing is test words not only convenient, but it also leads to better outcomes. Customers who buy essay model services are more ready than ever to complete the toughest essays. With the help we provide, the outcomes lead to stronger grades, punctual graduation and even strong job placement as a result of a better GPA. But more importantly, it leads to the satisfaction of knowing that you utilized all of your available resources and essay it river options for the most important projects you have to work on. Invest in your future by investing in essay test Ultius to help you with a sample essay.
Ready to get started? Professional American writer. Ordering takes five minutes. Purchased Essay Samples and Example Work. Before you buy essays from Ultius, make sure to carefully review other sample essays we have written in the past. Like any service offered by a company, it’s a good idea to “trust but verify.” For example, you probably tested out the computer or mobile device you are reading this on. You should do the database essays, same for our service. For that reason, Ultius is happy to offer examples of the work that we can produce for you.
Listed below are some samples we have previously written on our blog. The only difference is test that these are published for on pie the web and yours would not be. Help and essay test Resources - Even if You're Not Purchasing an essay Essay. Even if you are not interested in buying an essay essay from smoking essay solution Ultius, we have many additional guides and resources to help you construct your own. You can utilize our writing expertise and acumen to find out what a good end-product is supposed to test, look like and how to produce it. Dissertation. We have taken the liberty of essay test words, condensing our detailed Ultius essay help section to give you a glimpse of the essay writing process.
Additionally, we are happy to share our quality tools and between thesis dissertation best practices to make sure that you have everything you need to guide you through the essay test, entire audit process. Over the years, Ultius has worked with customers who bought essay samples and relentlessly studied essay preparation to determine what few key characteristics generally result in the completion of database essays, a successful essay. No matter what type of essay it is essay test words or the subject matter, the items listed below are considered best practices that must be followed. Abortion. Pay close attention to the recommendations and you will be well on your way to success, even if you don't buy essays for essay test sample use from us. The Thesis - The Foundation of a Great Essay. The thesis statement, from the smoking essay solution, first to last sentence, must be airtight. The primary argument has to come from a solid base. If there is a specific question that needs to be answered, the essay test words, thesis statement must address it within the difference between, conclusion of the first paragraph.
Also, the essay thesis needs to be a plan of attack for test what the body paragraphs are going to be about. Click here for essay it river more information on writing strong thesis statements. Good writers know that attention to detail is as must. Plus, your professor will expect it. Make sure to clearly read the instructions (all of them) and clarify by asking questions. For example, some common things to test, look out for solution include: (ii) Required number of sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrative…etc); Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and make a plan before even starting to write.
Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay essay can really make it or break it for you. Abortion Case Studies Ireland. Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and test body content that supports your original thesis. The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and essay run through narrow down the essay words, specific argument you want to make. Body paragraphs must have strong topic sentences and reference credible sources appropriately using the on pie chart, right citation style.
Finally, conclusions should not introduce new information and words must recap the main essay points that you presented previously. Adherence to Citation Style Guidelines. Finally, make sure to properly style your prepared essay in the appropriate citation style. For example, APA style has strict guidelines for cover pages and running heads while Chicago and Turabian require either footnotes or endnotes. Knowing how to cite properly and smoking essay format things accordingly can be worth upwards of test, twenty percent of your entire grade. Smoking Essay Solution. Following the formatting rules is an easy win, but you have to take the essay test words, time to essay run through, do it right. Also, always remember to credit another author’s work and don’t call it your own, especially if you bought an essay online. While writing good essays is essay words time consuming and essay tedious, it all comes down to following best practices and being diligent. Essay Test Words. Our writers follow a clear methodology that is thesis both practical and efficient for getting the best possible outcome.
First, make sure to select a good topic that you can write easily about and test words make sure you can find scholarly materials about it. Next, take some time to plan and make an outline based around a clear thesis statement. Proceed to write the body while adhering to essays, strict rules for paragraphs and inclusion of essay test, references. Finally, complete your references page and studies review the draft before submission using quality audit tools. Here, we recommend the same tools that we use if you were to purchase an essay model from us. Essay Topic Selection and Research. Strong topic selection is an important first step.
If possible, pick a topic that has lots of test words, available research materials or aligns with items you are studying in other classes. Try to avoid current events as there may be a lack of difference thesis, available research materials. Sample Essay Topics. Death penalty Abortion rights Gun rights Gender inequality. When doing academic research, only trust reputable sources like JSTOR, Google Scholar, your campus library or academic search engines you have access to. Essay Words. Lastly, collect the sources that you need first and go through them thoroughly. Now that you have picked a topic and collected some credible sources, it’s time to make a plan. Start by identifying common assumptions about the topic and essays on pie find common themes. Test. For example, if exploring the causes of poverty, you will inevitably find out that governments are the ones that control lots of food production and allocation to the people. Essays On Pie Chart. Once you have enough evidence to words, support a general theme, construct a thesis statement and make an smoking essay solution outline of the core items that support that assertion. If you don't think this step is necessary, just remember that our writers are trained to follow this process on all purchased sample essay orders.
You are ready to start writing. Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from a broad issue to a specific time and place. Essay Test. Provide background details as necessary. Then, conclude the difference, introduction with your thesis statement. Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and start with a topic sentence. Test Words. Always introduce your quotes and avoid “dropping them” without context. Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information. Essay References and Final Review. Finally, construct your works cited page using the right citation style guide.
Depending on the format, you may also need a title page. Review your final essay by reading it out loud and make sure you addressed your original instructions! You should use EasyBib to quickly build citations in almost any format. Have a friend, teacher or trusted essay editing service review your final draft to essay, make sure it is done properly (if you didn't already buy an essay). References and Considerations Before Buying an Essay. While the previous section described summarized steps towards writing an essay, consider going through our extended 14-Step Essay Writing Guide for a more thorough look at each section. Essay Words. It also includes template that you can download as well as color-coded visual aids. Essays Based. You can also learn about and see examples of essay related terms in our extensive glossary section. Words. Whether you choose to use Ultius for buying essays online or not, we hope that our extensive walkthroughs have helped you in your journey to finding essay help. Not what you're looking for or not convinced?
The links below may help. Search hundreds of services. Click to database essays, Verify. Ultius is proud to have strong verified reviews from different review vendors. Last updated on 16 January 2017 . With every order, you can count on words the following: Delivered on time 100% original Free revisions Awesome 24/7 support World-class writers. Every order comes with these free features: 275 Words Per Page Free Title Page Free Bibliography Free Revisions American Writers Plagiarism Scan. Connect with a professional writer by placing your first order.
The entire order process takes roughly five minutes and we usually match you with a writer within a few hours. Enter code newcust during checkout and save money on your first order. Have more questions? Get in touch with us or explore common questions. Ultius provides an online platform where we connect you with a freelance writer for sample writing, editing and business writing services. The company encourages and expects fair use of on food, our services. Words. Here are the guidelines. Order Revisions i. The company offers free revisions, but there are some limitations like the deadline and smoking solution whether we met the original instructions.
Sample Writing ii. Custom sample services are for model and reference use only. When referencing our work, you must use a proper citation. i Revisions are offered within seven (7) days of a completed order and are free with a three-day deadline. For earlier deadlines and general changes to core instructions, costs may apply. Explore the full Revision Policy. ii The company does not condone plagiarism, copyright infringement or any form of words, academic dishonesty.
All provided sample services must only be used for reference purposes while being cited properly. Please read the Fair Use Policy. Ultius is the trusted provider of essay it river run through, content solutions for consumers around the world. Connect with great American writers and get 24/7 support. Ultius is accredited with the Better Business Bureau and has an essay A+ rating. © 2017 Ultius, Inc.
Before we chat, please tell us a bit about yourself.
Need Help Writing an Essay? -
Essay Writing: Preparation: Instructional Words - Unilearning - UOW
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for test words, the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of database essays, your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the essay perfect person for database essays, the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience).
Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. Words. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to database essays be swapping different information in essay test words, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on based chart a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only essay test, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of thesis australia, cutting and essay, pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on database essays the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on test words a website), but basically it’s your first impression of on pie, a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on essay test reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . Smoking Essay Solution. According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and essay words, focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the essay good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet.
Unless it’s absolutely necessary in test words, your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the database essays bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to essay test words one page is a good way to force yourself to difference between dissertation australia do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to test showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of smoking solution, trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and then include a link to essay test words your personal website , where you can dive more into based what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple.
Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Essay. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by database essays using a font size between 10 and essay words, 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. Essays Chart. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and essay test, the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and between dissertation australia, keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on words readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Smoking Essay. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Words. If you’re applying to database essays a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to essay test words make it awesome. Database Essays. 10.
Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and essay, professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. Smoking Essay Solution. So help them get as much information as possible, in essay, as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to abortion case studies look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the test words experience relevant to essay on food irradiation the positions to which you are applying. And remember to essay allocate real estate on difference between thesis dissertation your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and test words, then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the essay on food narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.
Check out essay words these tips for dissertation, writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to essay words the average person. Remember that the essays based on pie first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and essay test, numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to abortion case studies picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to test words your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at essay solution your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in essay test words, what the essays on pie benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for essay test words, turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Essay. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to essay get across.
Think about thesis dissertation australia how you can demonstrate these attributes in essay test words, your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only essay irradiation, put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in words, your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in it river, applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include?
Dump the words job description into essay irradiation a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the essay test words most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and essay solution, hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. Essay Words. 25.
Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is essay, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about test words whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from essay college with high honors, absolutely make note of essay words, it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in based, the honors college at test your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.
Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and thesis australia, motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to essay test have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and difference australia, leadership skills—try breaking out words one of those sections and listing it on between australia its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks!
Feel free to words include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only database essays, add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about essay it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.
Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to essay it river run through weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about words personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.
Gaps and difference, Other Sticky Resume Situations. Test. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in smoking essay, an interview. If you have gaps of test words, a few months in essay, your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for words, each position. Smoking Essay Solution. Use years only essay test words, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Database Essays. See more tips from Jenny Foss for test words, killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the smoking essay solution workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on essay words your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in difference between australia, you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them.
There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). Essay Words. It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and on food, clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and essay, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at between thesis australia it for essay test, you (or get some tips from an essay it river editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of essay test, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to on pie chart an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of test, “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Studies. Erin Greenawald is essay test, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about case studies elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Essay Test. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in based, touch at eringreenawald.com.
Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
Write My Paper For Me -
Essay Writing: Preparation: Instructional Words - Unilearning - UOW
Economic Sanctions Foreign Assets Control. 610 documents in the last year. 822 documents in words, the last year. 1459 documents in the last year. 275 documents in the last year. 890 documents in the last year. Waiver of Compliance With Navigation Laws; Hurricane Maria. 239 documents in the last year.
Cultural Objects Imported for Exhibition. 96 documents in the last year. 842 documents in the last year. 50 documents in the last year. 172 documents in the last year. 1312 documents in the last year. Energy Efficiency Renewable Resources. 295 documents in essays based, the last year. 304 documents in the last year. Revocation of Executive Order Creating Labor- Management Forums. 49 documents in test, the last year.
26 documents in the last year. 87 documents in the last year. 76 documents in the last year. National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, 2017. 166 documents in the last year. 0 documents in the last year.
40 documents in the last year. Disaster Declarations Assistance. 921 documents in the last year. Explore Topics (CFR Indexing Terms) The Public Inspection page on FederalRegister.gov offers a preview of documents scheduled to appear in the next day's Federal Register issue. The Public Inspection page may also include documents scheduled for later issues, at essays on pie, the request of the essay test words, issuing agency. 8 Notices 2 Presidential Documents 6 Rules. 105 Notices 11 Proposed Rules 9 Rules. EO 13811: Continuance of Certain Federal Advisory Committees EO 13812: Revocation of Executive Order Creating Labor- Management Forums EO 13810: Imposing Additional Sanctions With Respect to North Korea 2017: 48.
2017: 7 2016: 41 2015: 29 2014: 31 2013: 21 2012: 38 2011: 34 2010: 37 2009: 37. 2009: 3 2008: 30 2007: 33 2006: 26 2005: 27 2004: 46 2003: 40 2002: 33 2001: 51. 2001: 7 2000: 39 1999: 35 1998: 38 1997: 38 1996: 50 1995: 40 1994: 54. The Daily Journal of the United States Government. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. Information about this document as published in the Federal Register . Enhanced Content - Table of Contents. This tables of contents is database essays, a navigational tool, processed from the headings within the legal text of Federal Register documents. Essay Test Words. This repetition of case studies headings to form internal navigation links has no substantive legal effect. Enhanced Content - Table of essay Contents. Enhanced Content - Submit Public Comment.
This feature is not available for this document. Enhanced Content - Submit Public Comment. Enhanced Content - Read Public Comments. This feature is not available for this document. Enhanced Content - Read Public Comments. Enhanced Content - Document Print View. Enhanced Content - Document Print View. These tools are designed to help you understand the official document better and aid in comparing the online edition to database essays, the print edition. These markup elements allow the user to see how the document follows the Document Drafting Handbook that agencies use to create their documents.
These can be useful for better understanding how a document is structured but are not part of the published document itself. Enhanced Content - Developer Tools. This document is words, available in the following developer friendly formats: More information and documentation can be found in our developer tools pages. Enhanced Content - Developer Tools. This PDF is the current document as it appeared on Public Inspection on run through, 12/04/2013 at 08:45 am. If you are using public inspection listings for legal research, you should verify the contents of the documents against a final, official edition of the Federal Register. Only official editions of the Federal Register provide legal notice to the public and judicial notice to the courts under 44 U.S.C.
1503 1507. Learn more here. This document has been published in the Federal Register . Essay. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for case studies the official electronic format. Rural Utilities Service, USDA. The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is words, publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and case ireland, implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural persons in their service territory.
This final rule amends RUS regulations on words, General and Pre-Loan Policies and Procedures Common to Electric Loans and Guarantees, which were codified on thesis dissertation, December 20, 1993. The final rule also includes conforming amendments to additional RUS regulations. Under Section 2 of the Rural Electrification Act (RE Act), RUS is authorized to assist electric borrowers in implementing Demand side management, energy efficiency and words, conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. Database Essays. The scope of essay test this regulation falls within the authority of the Act. This final rule is effective February 3, 2014. Start Further Info. Gerard Moore, USDA-Rural Utilities Service, 1400 Independence Avenue SW., Stop 1569, Washington, DC 20250-1569, telephone (202) 205-9692 or email to firstname.lastname@example.org. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information.
The Rural Utilities Service (RUS or Agency) is essay, publishing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in essay test words, support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural persons in their service territory. Essay. This final rule is designed to supplement the policies contained in 7 CFR part 1710, GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES, which were finalized in December 1993. Test Words. Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C. 902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . . . for the purpose of assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and difference between thesis dissertation australia, on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems.” Section 6101 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Farm Bill) inserted the words “and energy efficiency” into this provision. In order to implement this new focus of the program, RUS amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.” (EECLP). In fiscal year 2014 the Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in essay test, the President's climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on the performance of the solution, program. The goals of an words eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (1) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effecting a more efficient use of it river existing electric distribution, transmission and words, generation facilities; (4) attracting new businesses and creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and (5) encouraging the use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory.
Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program may include loans supporting energy efficiency activities undertaken by the utility itself, the finance of database essays energy efficiency projects undertaken by others, and investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. It is test words, important to distinguish that there are potentially two different types of loans associated with this regulation. RUS will loan funds to case, a utility for an energy efficiency program. The utility, in turn, may choose to relend these funds to their consumers (ultimate recipient) for essay test energy efficiency improvements in database essays, industrial, commercial, or residential applications.
The utility may also use the funds to complete energy efficiency activities on their own property. The anticipated transfers during the first year of the program will be the funding availability of $250 million. RUS expects this to increase over test the life of the program. The new Subpart H for the Energy Efficiency and run through, Conservation Loan Program can have several economic impacts. The benefits include: (1) The value of purchased energy saved; (2) the essay, value of based on pie chart corresponding avoided generation, transmission and/or distribution; and (3) savings in energy bills.
The final loan program is estimated to have administrative costs to the applicant and federal government, at about $740,000 total for applicants, and about $1.7 million for the Federal government. The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will impose administrative costs on applicants and essay, the Federal government. Quantitative estimates of these costs have been made and are presented below. Estimates of costs for applicants: the twenty expected applications are broken down into two sectionsapplications and reporting. Table 2 summarizes the on food, estimated costs. Table 2Estimate Burden to Applicants. All entities seeking financial assistance under this program must submit certain information to the Agency in order to apply for essay words a loan. The total estimated cost for database essays applying is approximately $593,356, calculated by multiplying the number of applicants (20) by the labor hours associated with the additional burden (823.20) by words an estimated $45 per hour for labor. See OPM's Web site at on food irradiation, http://www.opm.gov/#8203; Start Printed Page 73357 policy-data-oversight/#8203;pay-leave/#8203;salaries-wages/#8203; All applicants that are awarded funds must submit reports to the Agency to provide information on their performance.
The total estimated cost for reporting is approximately $148,338, calculated by words the number of applicants (20) by labor cost ($45) by hours per year (164.82). Estimates of costs to the Federal government were made based on the activities that the Federal government would incur to implement the based chart, rule and the length of time each activity required. Essay Test. A cost of $48.35 per hour was used in making these cost estimates. Table 3Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Burden Cost to the Federal Government. The following paragraphs summarize the activities and costs to be incurred by irradiation the Federal government for this program. RUS is test words, responsible for reviewing and essay, approving applications. As part of essay test this process, RUS will acknowledge receipt of applications and inform the applicants whether their application was selected for ireland funding. The estimated cost for these application activities is approximately $1,585,880. RUS is responsible for essay words reviewing various reports, including, but not limited to, project management plan, energy efficiency work plan, quality control plan, etc.
The estimated cost for reviewing these reports annually is approximately $125,710. This final rule has been reviewed under Executive Order (EO) 12866, “Regulatory Planning and Review,” 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993), and essay, has been determined to words, be “economically significant” by the Office of Management and Budget. Difference. The EO defines an essay words economically significant regulatory action as one that is likely to result in a rule that may have an it river run through annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect, in essay test, a material way, the economy, a sector of the essay solution, economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State, local, or tribal governments or communities. Essay Test. As required by OMB circular A-4 the regulatory impact analysis will be published along with this rule on regulations.gov.
The agency has also reviewed this regulation pursuant to EO 13563, issued on database essays, January 18, 2011 (76 FR 3281, Jan. Essay Words. 21, 2011). EO 13563 is supplemental to and explicitly reaffirms the principles, structures, and definitions governing regulatory review established in EO 12866. To the extent permitted by law, agencies are required by EO 13563 to: (1) Propose or adopt a regulation only upon a reasoned determination that its benefits justify its costs (recognizing that some benefits and costs are difficult to quantify); (2) tailor regulations to impose the least burden on society, consistent with obtaining regulatory objectives, taking into account, among other things, and to the extent practicable, the database essays, costs of cumulative regulations; (3) select, in words, choosing among alternative regulatory approaches, those approaches that maximize net benefits (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety, and other advantages; distributive impacts; and equity); (4) to essay, the extent feasible, specify performance objectives, rather than specifying the behavior or manner of compliance that regulated entities must adopt; and words, (5) identify and assess available alternatives to direct regulation, including providing economic incentives to encourage the desired behavior, such as user fees or marketable permits, or providing information upon which choices can be made by the public. The Agency conducted a cost-benefit analysis to fulfill the requirements of EO 12866 and 13563. In this analysis, the Agency identifies potential benefits and costs of the studies ireland, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program to words, borrowers, and RUS. The analysis contains quantitative estimates of the burden to essay irradiation, the public and the Federal government and qualitative descriptions of the expected economic, environmental, and energy impacts associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
This analysis will be made publicly available in the docket. RUS will only essay, make loans for these purposes to electric utility systems. Database Essays. RUS anticipates that borrowers under this subpart will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers or their distribution members or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their loan payments and in compliance with their loan documents. Words. This program is chart, held to the same high standards and regulatory requirements as the existing RUS electric loan program. RUS also anticipates that the energy efficiency improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility or the Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by employees of the borrower, at the discretion of the test words, utility designing the energy efficiency program. In all cases, the eligible borrower is expected to thesis australia, hold title to the receivables funded by the RUS loan. It is estimated that approximately 20 loans will be submitted annually. Considering applicants are existing RUS borrowers, it is essay test, anticipated that all 20 loans would be awarded. Abortion Case. The administrative cost to essay test words, the Applicant and the Federal government to apply, award and maintain these loans is database essays, $2.458 million. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance.
The program described by this rule is an words eligible purpose/subsidiary program of the Electrification Loans and Loan Guarantee program as listed in essay on food, the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance Programs under number 10.850, Rural Start Printed Page 73358 Electrification Loans and words, Loan Guarantees. The Catalog is available on the Internet at http://www.cfda.gov. This final rule is essay on food irradiation, excluded from the essay words, scope of Executive Order 12372, Intergovernmental Consultation, which may require consultation with State and local officials. See the final rule related notice entitled, “Department Programs and between thesis dissertation australia, Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372” (50 FR 47034). In accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Test. chapter 35), the information collection for this program has been approved by the Office of Management and Budget under OMB Control Number 0572-0032.
The Agency is committed to the E-Government Act, which requires Government agencies in on pie, general to provide the public the option of submitting information or transacting business electronically to the maximum extent possible. National Environmental Policy Act Review. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of essay 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the abortion studies ireland, Agency has prepared and test words, published a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) for this loan program activity as part of this rulemaking process. Database Essays. The PEA was published on February 6, 2013 in the Federal Register at essay test words, 78 FR 8444, and prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), the Council on Environmental Quality's (CEQ) regulations for implementing NEPA (40 CFR parts 1500-1508), and RUS' NEPA implementing regulations, Environmental Policies and essay, Procedures (7 CFR part 1794).
A Notice of Finding of essay test No Significant Impact was published on Friday August 16, 2013 in the Federal Register at VOL. 78, NO. 159. Regulatory Flexibility Act Certification. It has been determined the Regulatory Flexibility Act is not applicable to this rule since the RUS is not required by difference between dissertation 5 U.S.C. 551 et seq. or any other provision of law to essay words, publish a notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to the subject matter of this rule.
This rule contains no Federal mandates (under the regulatory provisions of title II of the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995) for state, local, and essay it river, tribal governments or for the private sector. Therefore, this rule is not subject to the requirements of section 202 and 205 of the essay, Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. This rule has been reviewed under Executive Order 12988, Civil Justice Reform. The Agency has determined that this rule meets the applicable standards in Section 3 of the Executive Order. In addition, all state and local laws and regulations that are in conflict with this rule will be preempted, no retroactive effort will be given to this rule, and, in accordance with section 212(e) of the Department of Agriculture Reorganization Act of 1994 (7 U.S.C. 6912(e)), administrative appeals procedures, if any, must be exhausted before any action against the Department or its agencies may be initiated. The policies contained in it river, this rule do not have any substantial direct effect on state and local governments, on the relationship between the national government and the state and local governments, or on the distribution of power and responsibilities among the various levels of government. Nor does this rule impose substantial direct compliance costs on state and local governments. Essay Test. Therefore, consultation with the database essays, states is test words, not required.
Executive Order 13175, Consultation and studies, Coordination With Indian Tribal Governments. This Executive Order imposes requirements on essay test, the development of regulatory policies that have tribal implications or preempt tribal laws. Between October 2010 and January 2011, the run through, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) hosted seven regional regulation Tribal consultation sessions to gain input by elected Tribal officials or their designees concerning the impact of this rule (and other 2008 Farm Bill changes) on Tribal governments, communities, and individuals. No comments specific to this rule were received through that process. If a Tribe determines that this rule has implications of essay which Rural Development is case, not aware or would like further information regarding the consultation process, please contact Rural Development's Native American Coordinator at test words, (720) 544-2911 or AIAN@wdc.usda.gov. This rulemaking amends 7 CFR part 1710 by adding a new Subpart H entitled “Energy Efficiency and difference thesis australia, Conservation Loan Program.” Under Section 2(a) of the Rural Electrification Act of 1936 (7 U.S.C.
902(a)), the Secretary of Agriculture is explicitly “authorized and empowered to make loans in the several States and Territories of the United States . Essay Test Words. . Database Essays. . for the purpose of essay words assisting electric borrowers to implement Demand side management, energy efficiency and conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems.” As noted, Section 6101 of the 2008 Farm Bill inserted the words “energy efficiency” into smoking solution this provision, which was originally added as an amendment to the RE Act by the Rural Electrification Loan Restructuring Act of 1993 (“RELRA”) (Pub. L. 103-129 sec. 2(c)(1)(B)). Essay Test Words.  RUS has experience with implementing programs that promote energy conservation, and RELRA explicitly recognized that energy conservation is part of the Agency's mission. Starting in essay, 1980, for example, RUS developed an Energy Resources Conservation Program by issuing RUS Bulletin 20-23, Section 12, “Extensions for Energy Resources Conservation Loans”, dated December 8, 1980. Essay Test Words.  This Bulletin interpreted the Administrator of RUS's discretion under the RE Act to extend the time for based payments, and this became the foundation for the “ERC Loan Program.” At that time, RUS did not make ERC Loan Program loans directly. It operated the ERC Loan Program by entering into agreements with its borrowers to defer amortization of their loans in order for the borrowers to fund energy conservation improvements. The borrowers, generally electric cooperatives, made loans to their members out essay words of the cash flow resulting from the deferments they received from RUS on their own loans. Even though RUS did not make the ERC loans itself, the Agency provided financial assistance to smoking, rural Consumers by using the electric cooperatives as intermediaries. Congress subsequently amended Section 12 of the RE Act in 1990 and Start Printed Page 73359 again in 2008.
In 1990, Congress expanded Section 12 to enable deferments such that borrowers could provide financing to local businesses, with the intent of stimulating rural economic development. In 2008, Congress expanded Section 12 of the RE Act to essay test words, authorize energy efficiency and use audits and to install energy efficiency measures or devices to reduce demand on it river, electric systems. The recent grant of essay test additional authority in Section 2(a) of the RE Act to make loans and guarantees for energy efficiency, as contrasted with the Section 12 authority to merely defer payments on essay solution, direct loans, has become increasingly significant as the percentage of the RUS portfolio represented by direct loans continues to amortize. In recent times the test words, Agency delivers nearly all of its electric program assistance in the form of loan guarantees. As a guarantor, RUS does not have the essay, same discretion to defer payments that it does when it is the lender. Consequently, RUS has determined that it is now necessary and appropriate to finalize a loan program for this RE Act purpose. “The RE Act, 7 U.S.C. 904, commits to essay words, the discretion of the Administrator the making of loans for rural electrification. . . Difference Between. .” Alabama Power Co. v. Ala. Elec. Coop., 394 F.2d 672 at 675 (CA 5) cert. denied 393 U.S. Essay Test. 1000 (1968). “REA is the administrative agency charged by Congress with responsibility for database essays facilitating rural electrification.
REA was intended by essay words Congress to determine the appropriate course of conduct to accomplish the legislative purpose.” Public Utility District No. 1 of essay Franklin County v. Big Bend Electric Cooperative, Inc., 618 F.2d 601 at 603 (CA 9 1980). By broadly adding “energy efficiency” in essay, the 2008 Farm Bill as a legislative purpose for the RE Act loans, Congress left it to the Administrator's discretion to database essays, fashion the appropriate method to accomplish this purpose. Drawing on essay test words, more than three decades of experience in using electric cooperatives as local intermediaries to accomplish RE Act objectives at the Consumer level, RUS will deliver this energy efficiency program by essay on food irradiation drawing upon its favorable past successes and using its electric borrowers as intermediaries. RUS will only make loans for eligible purposes to electric utility systems . An eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to words, persons in a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. RUS anticipates that borrowers under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program will be generation and transmission (GT) borrowers, their distribution members, or unaffiliated distribution borrowers who are current on their RUS loan payments and in compliance with those loan documents. RUS anticipates that the Energy Efficiency (EE) improvements installation work may be contracted by either the utility, the Ultimate Recipient, or performed directly by studies employees of the borrower. Words. In all cases, the irradiation, Eligible Borrower will hold title to the receivables funded by the RUS loan. RUS is authorized by the RE Act to essay test words, make loans to database essays, implement Demand side management (DSM), EE Programs and essay words, conservation programs, and on-grid and off-grid renewable energy systems. Energy efficiency in this regulation is smoking essay, defined as the degree a system or component performs its designated function with minimum consumption of resources.
Renewable energy systems have a specific role in this regulation. Renewable generation can be used as load modifiers, which can increase the test words, efficiency of energy consumption from the utilities perspective and essays based chart, are effective at decreasing energy used by words decreasing load. Renewable energy and conservation savings associated with this regulation are from the utilities perspective, though the energy savings could be realized by essay both the Consumer and words, utility, depending on the type of project, as the utility is the RUS borrower and database essays, is culpable for repayment of the essay test words, loan. Energy efficiency under this final regulation may accomplish either DSM, energy conservation, or both. The goals of an eligible EE Program under Subpart H may include one or more of the following: (1) Increase energy efficiency at the end user level; (2) modify electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (3) effect a more efficient use of existing electric distribution, transmission and smoking solution, generation facilities; (4) attract new businesses and essay test words, create jobs in rural communities; and (5) encourage the use of renewable energy fuels. There are three primary differences between the existing energy resource conservation program codified in 7 CFR part 1721 subpart B (ERC program) and the EECLP final regulation in essay on food, 7 CFR part 1710, subpart H. First, the existing ERC program is limited to direct loan principal deferments and is not available for RUS guaranteed loans. Second, the essay test, list of eligible loan purposes for this program is more expansive than the ERC program and, where applicable, emphasizes that the assets in question must be characterized as an integral part of the Consumer's real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable state law. Lastly, the term of smoking solution financing available under Subpart H is longer than the term allowed for principal deferments under the ERC loan program. Rural electric cooperatives are proponents of energy efficiency measures. According to essay, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association: 73 percent of these co-ops plan on significantly expanding existing efficiency programs in the next two years: 70 percent of co-ops offer financial incentives to promote greater energy efficiency: 96 percent of co-ops have some form of energy efficiency program in place, co-ops are responsible for nearly 25 percent of essay residential peak load management capacity, and cooperatives have 10 percent of retail electricity sales but are responsible for 20 percent of actual peak demand reduction.
Representatives from rural electric cooperatives have commented that access to low interest funds can be the difference between success and failure for an energy efficiency program. Eligible EE Programs can be comprised of a variety of activities, performed by either the utility or third parties. This final rule sets forth the essay, policies and procedures related to difference between thesis australia, eligible EE Programs where the RUS will finance: (1) Energy efficiency activities undertaken by test words the utility itself; (2) loans made by the utility to finance energy efficiency projects undertaken by others; and difference dissertation, (3) investments made by the utility to accomplish their obligations under utility energy services contracts. The types of activities that are eligible for RUS financing under Subpart H include but are not limited to: (1) Energy audits; (2) community awareness and outreach programs; (3) services, materials and equipment provided by essay words a qualified local contractor to improve energy efficiency at the Consumer level; and (4) energy efficiency loans made by the utility to based, its customers. RUS is allowing fuel switching as an eligible activity under this regulation. Words. A description of based chart EE Programs that qualify for words RUS financing can be found in § 1710.405. Eligible investments are listed in database essays, § 1710.406. Finally, eligible borrowers are defined in essay test, § 1710.404.
Some programs designed by utilities may have the utility initially owning an between thesis dissertation australia asset even though it is located on words, a Consumer's premise and the asset is later conveyed to the Consumer after it is it river run through, paid for or a predetermined time period has elapsed. Where this is the case, RUS is proposing that the application include an additional or Start Printed Page 73360 revised Schedule C to essay test, the RUS mortgage listing these assets as Excepted Property under the RUS mortgage, so as to preclude the assets being captured under the after acquired clause that is standard in smoking solution, the RUS mortgage codified in 7 CFR part 1718. It is the test words, intent of RUS that a release of lien need not be executed by the Agency for essay it river run through the utility to convey to the Consumer clear title to these assets when this Schedule C is essay test, recorded. This final rulemaking recognizes that energy may take a variety of forms, not just electricity. The criteria to be met by abortion studies eligible programs include energy efficiency as measured by essay British Thermal Unit (Btu) input relative to thesis, Btu output, in essay test words, order to facilitate the difference dissertation, widest and greatest contribution by words the rural utility in optimizing the energy consumption profile of its service territory. This rulemaking also provides that an eligible program must demonstrate that the financial strength of the electric utility is not harmed by difference between thesis australia EE Program activities funded under Subpart H.
An important distinction between eligible energy efficiency assets to be financed under this new Subpart H and essay words, other energy efficiency activities is that the assets located at a Consumer's premises, whether or not title is to be held by the utility must, for the most part, be considered an integral part of the real property that would typically transfer with the title under applicable State law in order to be financed pursuant to an eligible program under Subpart H. Eligible programs shall provide that the essay on food, utility will recoup all or part of the costs from essay test specific ratepayers on whose behalf an investment has been made. Recoupment may take the form of smoking solution Consumer loan repayment or a dedicated tariff. An eligible program reviewed under Subpart H must show that the payment terms and loan term offered to the Consumer are generally correlated with the expected life of the applicable assets. Essay Test Words. An eligible program must also offer an undertaking that funds, collected from ratepayers, in excess of the current amortization requirements for the RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to prepay the RUS loan. These prepayments are in essay, addition to scheduled principal and interest debt service payments. Applications for essay program financings under Subpart H must fully describe a Business Plan that meets the requirements of abortion case § 1710.407. The Agency recognizes that energy efficiency investments that reduce energy consumption at the Consumer premises (for instance those that affect the power factor) may prompt a need for essay words investments at the system level to sustain the reliability and stability of the grid. The business plan called for in Subpart H must identify the related system investment to be identified as part of the EE Program, but these system level investments would be reflected in the utility's construction work plan and financed as part of a traditional loan application. It is not required that an eligible program fund energy audits performed at Consumer premises. However, if the utility proposes to provide audits; Subpart H requires that the program must also include a provision for essay it river assisting Consumers in test, implementing changes suggested in aggregate to be cost effective by the audit.
A program that funds energy audits without providing assistance for implementing audit recommendations included in the audit would not be an eligible program under Subpart H. Only those activities that are cost effective in aggregate are eligible to be funded under Subpart H. The list of essays chart eligible investments and activities that a qualified plan may incorporate is essay, not intended to be exhaustive. Database Essays. The intent is to facilitate flexibility for the utility's EE Program consistent with the resources and essay test, Consumer profiles in its service territory. This lending program is designed for utility-designed and directed EE Programs. As such it anticipates that eligible loan purposes will include program administrative and other soft costs, such as marketing expenses, where not more than five percent of the abortion, loan budget may be used for these purposes. A utility's program may include acting as an intermediary lender, where the words, utility uses RUS financing to make Consumer loans to finance these investments on the Consumers' premises. Where this is the case, Subpart H requires the borrower to have a maximum interest rate to the ultimate consumer at 1.5 percent above the RUS loan cost to the borrower unless an exception is granted by the Administrator. Exceptions will be made on a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan. We will not accept an database essays exception if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent. This rate must be discussed in the applicant's business plan. The process for applying for EECLP loans is intended to largely conform to the Agency's existing process for loans relating to essay test words, other eligible purposes.
Accordingly, the requirements discussed throughout 7 CFR part 1710 apply equally to EECLP loans unless otherwise stated after giving effect to the conforming amendments incorporated in this rulemaking. Expenditures by the utility will be reimbursed by essay run through the Agency after the fact pursuant to an inventory of work orders system as is typical for our existing loan process. The analytical material needed to support an EECLP loan is different from test what is needed to analyze a generation or transmission loan. Accordingly, Subpart H elaborates on what is needed for difference australia RUS to approve an EE Program and test, loans to essay, execute the program. EE Program activity will be captured under a separate energy efficiency work plan. Energy efficiency investments will not be listed on the traditional construction work plan that applies to utility assets financed by essay test RUS. As with other loans made pursuant to 7 CFR part 1710, a borrower's Environmental Report (ER) is it river run through, expected to accompany the energy efficiency work plan associated with the loan request. The ER is in accordance with 7 CFR part 1794. Test Words. Part 1794 contains the policies and database essays, procedures of the Rural Utilities Service for implementing the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act.
In the case of an EECLP loan, this ER will be expected to test, reference the PEA completed by database essays the Agency for EECLP loans, and essay, identify any investments and case, their potential environmental impacts proposed in the work plan that were not analyzed in the PEA. This new Subpart H is not intended to be duplicative of requirements otherwise prescribed in part 1710, but rather, supplemental. It identifies requirements that are unique to loans made under the proposed Subpart H to finance EE Programs. It prescribes requirements for our direct borrowers. Our direct borrowers will then act as intermediary lenders to accomplish the investments outlined in an approved EE program.
Where there is an express conflict with requirements elsewhere in part 1710, the provisions of Subpart H would apply, but otherwise Subpart H is not intended to supplant the applicability of the rest of part 1710 or other applicable parts in essay test, the Code of Federal Regulations. In implementing Subpart H, as required for on food all of part 1710, RUS will work with Department of Energy (DOE), following the requirements set out by the Rural Electrification Act of 1936, Section 16 that states: “the Secretary in making or guaranteeing loans for words the construction, operations, or enlargement of generating plants or electric transmission lines or systems shall consider such general criteria consistent with the provisions of this Act as may Start Printed Page 73361 be published by the Secretary of Energy.” Summary of Major Changes in Response to smoking, Comments on the Rule. The agency published a Proposed rulemaking on July 26, 2012, at 77 FR 43723. RUS received 63 comments on the proposed Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program.
The sixty three commenters consisted of industry representatives that included: Electric cooperatives, such as South Carolina Electric and Gas company; nonprofit energy efficiency supporters, such as the E3 coalition and the Sierra Club; and envelope organizations that represent RUS borrowers, such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Sixty two of the sixty three letters were extremely supportive of the regulation, and applauded RUS for words proposing the program. Essay On Food Irradiation. The opposing letter stated that it was against all Federal programs. Major changes in response to these comments, include the following items: 1. Removed restrictions on the size of load modifiers. 2. Adjusted soft cost limitations from essay 4 percent to 5 percent. 3. Limit Consumer interest rate to 1.5 percent above the cost of the loan to the borrower. 4. Decreased the complexity of the loan program by eliminating performance thresholds. 5. Defined certified energy auditor. 6. Added fuel switching as an eligible purpose. 7. Clarified the essay, definition of eligible borrowers to include former and new RUS borrowers that meet RUS standards specified in regulation and test, statute.
8. Essay. Changed the cost effectiveness requirements, extending requirements to 10 years or equipment useful life on an aggregate basis. 9. Removed the Net Utility Plant language. 10. Allowed some pre-retrofitting as an eligible activity. A summary of the comments and RUS's response are as follows:
Small Scale Renewable Energy Projects. Comment: There were 17 comments addressing the essay, small scale renewable energy limitation of “nameplate generation capacity that is less than the 50 percent of the average anticipated electrical load associated with the end user.” Of the database essays, 17 comments, only 4 wanted to decrease or eliminate small scale renewables, on words, the basis that small scale renewables tend to not be cost effective. Response: The Energy Efficiency and difference thesis dissertation australia, Conservation Loan program regulation has been edited, and will no longer have any restrictions on small scale renewable energy projects. All activities will be eligible, however, state mandates, laws, and essay, cooperative bylaws will override this regulation. Soft Costs Associated With a Borrower's Loan.
Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS not limit the “administrative” costs associated with the loan. The current regulation limits administrative costs to smoking essay solution, 4 percent. Response: RUS acknowledges that there is essay test, a cost to our borrowers to start-up and maintain an energy efficiency program, and has agreed to smoking, increase the “administrative” cost limitation to 5 percent in test, the final regulation. However, RUS must protect the Electric Program loan portfolio, and increasing the rate any higher may impair the productivity of the program, and smoking, subsequently the subsidy rate. Also, cooperatives may have the opportunity to rate-base certain energy efficiency costs. The Rate Borrowers Can Charge to the Ultimate Consumer Above the Treasury Based Interest Rate. Comment: RUS requested comments on essay, the appropriate markup borrowers could charge above the Treasury-based interest rate. Twenty-one comments were received. The majority of comments stated that markups must be between 5 and difference australia, 10 percent, with numerous comments stating that RUS should not specify a cap to make the program economical to the borrower.
Response: Borrowers are limited to interest rates 1.5 percent above the cost of their RUS loan. Exceptions will be given on a case-by-case basis that must be clearly articulated in the business plan such as unavoidable program level costs. We will not accept an exception if the loan is feasible at 1.5 percent.This information, combined with all the other additional information, will allow RUS to determine the feasibility of the loan. Decrease the Complexity of the Loan Program. Comment: RUS received seven comments stating that the current program requirements were too complicated and burdensome. Essay Words. Requiring an environmental plan, business plan, quality assurance plan, performance thresholds, return on investment demonstrations, additional supporting documents, and irradiation, load forecasting before and after improvements was too extensive, and would limit borrower's interest in the program.
Response: RUS has simplified the regulation to decrease the test words, Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program's complexity and difference, burden. Test. Performance thresholds have been removed, the cost effectiveness definition has been modified, and procedures edited to keep the program simple and straight forward. Comment: Six comments were submitted, asking RUS to clarify the definition of difference between certified energy auditor. Response: RUS has clarified the definition, allowing a borrower to use an auditor certified under state, local, or federal standards. Identifying the essay words, Appropriate Performance Thresholds. Comment: Twenty comments were received on what were the appropriate performance thresholds for the Energy Efficiency and essays based on pie chart, Conservation Loan Program. Seven comments supported the language in the proposed rule, stating “existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from Energy Star, Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), or other voluntary consensus standards,” 2 comments recommended limiting the thresholds to Energy Star or Energy Efficiency Ratio, and the remaining 9 comments recommended that RUS fund all market proven energy products that reduce the Consumer's annual Btu. Response: RUS clarified that borrowers are encouraged to essay test words, use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from ENERGY STAR, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards rather than performance thresholds to give Borrowers greater latitude. Comment: Twelve comments strongly supported fuel switching.
Fuel switching is essential for some borrowers to database essays, handle peak demand. Response: RUS has modified the regulation to test, allow fuel switching. Case Ireland. Many of the 12 comments in support of test fuel switching were associations that represent over ireland 1,000 electric cooperatives and millions of test households, including NW Energy Coalition, Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance, Utility Geothermal Working Group, Iowa Environmental Council, The Mountain Association for Community Economic Development, and smoking solution, the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association. Start Printed Page 73362. The $250 Million Funding Limitation. Comment: Sixteen comments were received, all in strong support of removing the $250 million limitation.
Response: The $250 million was an estimate of what the Agency believed would be the demand for the program. Essay Words. Public comment indicates more interest in the program than the proposed rule's $250 million per smoking essay, year limitation. In fiscal year 2014, the Rural Utilities Service will make $250 million available to support energy efficiency as indicated in essay words, the Presidents climate change action plan. In future years, the amount of funding made available will be based on database essays, the performance of the test, program. Additionally, to be consistent, the energy efficiency program should compete equally with other eligible loan purposes. Comment: One comment was submitted proposing a preferred lender program that borrowers could qualify for if they had a loan total of less than $2 million. Standards would be set for basic, preapproved weatherization practices and be made available to any eligible borrower.
Standard benefit levels would be assigned to those practices and between australia, applied when determining benefits. There would not be a requirement for energy audits or post tests. This would cut the cost of program delivery while maintaining well established and known benefits for the members. The cooperatives that wish to essay test, participate at a higher loan level would have to comply with the standards established in australia, the proposed regulations. Response: RUS believes that preferred lending criteria is test, not needed in the regulation. Database Essays. RUS will use current authorities to test words, streamline the database essays, application process.
Former RUS Borrowers and Their Eligibility for the Loan Program. Comment: Four comments were submitted supporting allowance of former RUS borrowers to return to the program. Response: The regulation has been modified to clarify that past borrowers are eligible for essay test words the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program, in accordance with the statute and any other regulation relating to new or returning borrowers. The Cost Effective Requirement in Section 1710.405. Comment: Nine comments were received, eight requesting a payback period that was longer than the current 5 years stated in the regulation. One comment requested that the payback period be less than the life of the product. Response: The regulation has been modified to more precisely define cost effectiveness and increase the payback to 10 years, except in cases where the useful life of the essay on food irradiation, technology on an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the 10 year period.
RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. Financial Institutions and Cooperative Relending. Comment: Four comments were received requesting RUS to add language in the regulation that defines who RUS borrowers can work with as intermediaries. Response: RUS will not add any additional language. Business cases will be reviewed to determine the viability of the essay words, loan.
Existing regulation language does not deter borrowers from establishing partnerships with other organizations to help implement their energy efficiency programs. Comment: Three comments were received asking RUS to remove the smoking essay solution, provisions of § 1710.409(d (1)). Essay Test Words. The commenters believed that the section could seriously limit transmission borrowers who did not own generation. Response: RUS has removed the section. Initially the regulation language anticipated borrowers would own electric generating plants.
Public comments from statewide electric cooperative associations and distribution cooperatives interested in the loan program indicated that they would be excluded from the energy efficiency program with 1710.409(d(1)). These current borrowers are not generation and case, transmission organizations and therefore do not own electric generation plants. The language has been removed to allow them to participate. Comment: Four comments asked RUS to remove §§ 1710.406(d), 1017.407(g), and 1710.408(i). Each of those sections state borrowers shall follow a bulletin or other publication to be identified later. They claim that the essay test words, proposed provision violates the Administrative Procedures Act by purporting to essay solution, establish as regulatory obligations purely administrative determinations to be made later without notice and comment rulemaking. Response: The proposed rule required borrowers to follow requirements in yet to words, be developed bulletins. The final regulation has been changed from “shall” to difference between australia, “are strongly encouraged to.” Please see the following regulatory language “(g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and words, describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time to time or eliminate it as RUS deems it necessary. “ Requiring all Electric Borrowers To Participate in This Program.
Comment: Three comments asked if all current borrowers would be required to participate in the Energy Efficiency Loan Program. One of the two comments stated that RUS must require all borrowers to participate in this loan program and have active energy efficiency programs. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program allows for energy efficiency improvements as an eligible purpose and will be reviewed and approved as other eligible purposes within the statute and the regulation. RUS does not believe it to be appropriate to require Borrowers to participate in essay solution, this program. Comment: Two comments questioned the need for essay words load forecasting, one comment stated that their current energy efficiency and it river, conservation loan program is made up of only essay test words, 30-40 members, not affecting the between thesis dissertation, forecast at all. Response: Load Forecasting is an essay important accountability component of the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. If the energy efficiency program has negligible effect on the Load Forecast then that information should be stated in the discussion within the Load Forecast. No changes were made to studies ireland, the regulation. Comment: One comment stated that there were very few qualified energy managers and professional engineers in essay test words, rural areas that are available to conduct the requirements of a program evaluation, and questioned who would have to it river, bear the cost of the essay words, evaluation. Response: RUS recognizes that there will be additional expenses associated with the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. The borrowers may pass along those costs to the Ultimate Recipient, but it needs to be explained in the submitted work plan.
Start Printed Page 73363. Loan Advances on a Reimbursement Basis. Comment: Two comments questioned how funds would be distributed. Essay Solution. They were not supportive of funding projects on essay test, a reimbursable basis. Response: All of RUS's programs are run on a reimbursable basis, though the regulation currently states that startup capital of up to 5 percent may be made available for an energy efficiency plan. No changes will be made to our current funding model. Making Post-Installment Evaluations Publically Available. Comment: Two comments requested that all post-installment evaluation and verification requirements be made available to the public.
Response: RUS acknowledges the importance of transparency, but also must weigh the privacy of our borrowers. Essay On Food Irradiation. We will provide information to the public in conformity with the Freedom of Information Act. Comment: One comment reiterated the importance of using qualified contractors to install energy efficiency and conservation activities. Response: RUS is a strong supporter of words using qualified contractors and will require borrowers to state the abortion studies, types of contractors that will be used, if any, in a borrower's quality assurance plan. Comment: One comment stated that borrowers should be able to aggregate their various energy efficiency programs to bring them up to scale, decreasing the total workload. Response: The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program will hold each borrower accountable. Test Words. Though borrowers can work with each other to decrease costs, each borrower will be individually held responsible for providing the irradiation, required level of essay words information and essays based on pie chart, oversight. Comment: One comment stated that the regulation should not specifically call out ground source heat pumps, as the technology is advancing quickly.
Response: Ground source heat pumps are just one eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan program. Though mentioned in the regulation as an example, we are neither promoting nor discouraging their use. Offer Technical Assistance to Utilities. Comment: One comment requested RUS provide technical assistance to utilities to design, administer, and evaluate their energy efficiency loan program. Response: RUS will work closely with the borrower, answering any questions they may have on their business plan, quality assurance plan, etc. Encourage Peer-to-Peer Networking Through Webinars. Comment: Six comments requested RUS set up regular webinars, phone conferences and an on-line peer-exchange Web site for participating borrowers. Response: RUS supports the exchange of essay words ideas and will facilitate cross communication when possible, but RUS does not have the difference, resources to commit to this on a large scale.
RUS will partner with other federal agencies to support broader peer-to-peer exchange. The Definition of Energy Efficiency and Conservation measures. Comment: One comment requested that we add the following language to the energy efficiency and conservation measures definition, “which may also include the onsite generation of electricity from waste heat resources. ” Response: RUS believes the essay test, definition is inclusive, and the additional language is essay it river run through, unnecessary. Comment: Eight comments stated that RUS stress the test, importance of using on-bill repayment as an effective financing method for energy efficiencies. Response: RUS recognizes that on-bill financing is smoking essay solution, one way for a borrower to be repaid for their activities, however the borrower will have the ultimate decision on how they will recover their expenses.
Their method of test choice will be articulated in their business plan. Additional Language Clarifying That Borrowers Cannot Exclude Renters. Comment: Five comments requested that RUS add language to the regulation requiring utilities to identify approaches that would ensure the case, equitable treatment by all types of consumers, and explicitly include low-income in both single-family and multi-family buildings. Response: RUS sympathizes with the comment's concern, however we believe § 1710.122 on test, Equal opportunity and nondiscrimination located in essay solution, the overarching Electric Program regulation, fulfills the needs specified by test words the comments. Pre-Retrofits Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that pre-retrofit activities that need to take place to make a house structurally sound before weatherization activities can take place, be an eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and database essays, Conservation loan program. Response: RUS added language to allow limited pre-retrofits as an eligible loan activity. Essay. The Department of Energy has established that many opportunities for energy efficiency upgrades exist in low income housing. Case Studies. Often the residential building envelope needs infrastructure improvements to be able to accept energy efficiency upgrades. For example, the floor of essay test words a residential building may need structural repairs before efficient insulation can be installed.
This would reduce the overall energy requirement for the structure. Loan Loss Reserves and Credit Enhancements Should Be Allowed as Program Costs. Comment: Four comments stated that RUS allow borrowers to create loan loss reserve funds to allow utilities to database essays, attract investors and leverage private capital, as an essay eligible activity under the Energy Efficiency and Conservation loan program. Response: RUS is statutorily required to fund energy efficiency and conservation activities. Additional activities are outside the agency's authority and would require amendments. Additional Language Supporting a Diverse Workforce. Comment: One comment requested that RUS add language to require borrowers to use local and under-represented businesses when implementing their energy efficiency program. Response: A borrower must prove that their energy efficiency program is cost effective; specifying who a borrower must work with is beyond the scope of Subpart H. Comment: Seven comments requested that RUS clarify “due diligence” to on food, confirm that ability to repay a loan or participate in essay, a program does not have to include a credit check, but rather rely on dissertation, utility bill payment history.
Response: The borrower is essay test, held accountable for paying off the on food irradiation, loan, and needs to determine eligible Consumers. Their method of choice will be articulated in their business plan. Comment: One comment requested clarification on § 1710.255(b), which requires that all facilities being improved be included in the energy Start Printed Page 73364 efficiency work plan, to state that this section only applies to utility-owned properties. Response: RUS believes the Energy Efficiency Work Plan (EEWP) must also itemize Consumer upgrades in aggregate. Clarifying Demand Side Management. Comment: Three comments requested that RUS specifically state that switches for water heaters and air conditioning units be eligible under Demand side management, or at a minimum clearly state energy efficiency in the definition. Response: RUS believes the essay words, definition is case, inclusive, and the additional language is essay test, unnecessary. Redefine Energy Efficiency and Conservation Measures.
Comment: Two comments requested that RUS change the essay solution, sentence “ultimate goal is the reduction of words utility energy needs” to “ultimate goal is the reduction of all forms of consumer energy needs (based on annual Btu consumption). Response: RUS believes the current definition fits the ultimate goal, to reduce utility energy needs, Consumer energy needs is too limiting as utilities are also eligible to finance energy efficiency activities in their facilities. Comment: Two comments requested that the words “power quality equipment” be added. Response: RUS believes the definition is inclusive, and the additional language is smoking, unnecessary. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS remove fuel cells as an eligible activity and essay test words, investment. Response: Fuel cells can be used in between australia, energy efficiency and conservation activities and will keep the test, activity in the regulation.
They can act as load modifiers; load modifiers are already identified as an eligible purpose for loan funds. Comment: Two comments requested that RUS make changes to § 1710.406 (a)(1). The proposed rule states that eligible program activities and investments “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or MANAGED demand on the customer side of the meter. While demand improvements are a primary goal of the smoking essay, rule, demand improvement can be accomplished through managed or passive improvements on the customer side of the meter. Consequently the word ‘managed' should be removed from the text and replaced with the word “reduce” and the word “peak” should be added before “demand.” The new text should state “shall be designed to improve energy efficiency or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the meter. Response: RUS agrees with the language request and has incorporated it into this final rule. Comment: One comment requests additional clarification in essay test words, the background section on what the rate will be for borrowers. Response: This section has been revised for other reasons, the issue is smoking essay, moot. Comment: One comment requests the section be modified to remove insured, and revise the language to be “a) Purpose and amount. With the exception of test words minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of construction, and smoking essay, follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable.
Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to words, the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of thesis australia construction. Response: RUS accepts the following language change: “a) Purpose and essay words, amount. With the exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in a RUS approved borrower's EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, that have also received written Environmental Clearance and/or Approval from RUS prior to the start of database essays construction, and follow RUS' contract and bidding procedures as set forth in essay test, 7 CFR part 1726 if applicable. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount up to the actual cost incurred less any contribution in aid of construction. Comment: One comment asked if the Energy Efficiency loan program would override state or federal Law. Response: The Energy Efficiency and abortion case, Conservation Loan program does not override any statutory state or federal laws. Comment: One comment requested that RUS change the loan program, and test, loan directly to thesis dissertation australia, consumers, bypassing the electric companies.
Response: The Energy Efficiency and test words, Conservation Loan program does not statutorily allow us this discretion. Natural Gas Expansion and Explicit Support of Water Heaters. Comment: Two comments requested RUS explicitly support a given technology or fuel. One comment requested that RUS create a broader regulation that clearly articulates the essay, importance of natural gas. One comment requested that RUS explicitly include installation of solar thermal, gas, and electric-resistance water heaters as an words eligible use of program funds. Response: RUS does not support one technology or fuel source. No changes will be made to the regulation. Appropriate Performance Thresholds for Water Heaters. Comment: One comment requested that RUS set explicit energy efficiency thresholds for water heaters. Response: RUS will not list specific threshold levels in this regulation.
Rather, we have clarified that borrowers are encouraged to use existing energy efficiency standards or criteria such as those from: Energy Star, FEMP, ANSI, or other voluntary consensus standards. Focus on case studies, Utility Programs That Support Customer Investments in Energy Efficiency. Comment: One comment asked RUS to establish requirements and guidelines that will ensure program funds are substantially devoted to words, support utility programs designed to support efficiency investments in customer homes, buildings, and smoking essay solution, facilities. Response: RUS believes our regulation supports these investments, as well as investments in decreasing a utility's total energy use. No additional language was added. Leverage Other Federal Programs With the Energy Efficiency Program. Comment: One comment asked RUS to explore leveraging options with USDA's Rural Housing Service, Federal Housing Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Federal Housing Finance Authority. Response: RUS supports program collaboration, and will continue to words, work with our Federal partners, but no additional language will be included in the regulation. Database Essays. Start Printed Page 73365. Consider Combined Heat and Power Projects as Eligible Measures.
Comment: One comment asked RUS to explicitly state combined heat and power projects are an eligible energy conservation activity under the regulation. Response: RUS believes our regulation provides enough flexibility to allow these forms of test activities, without specifying every eligible activity in the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS change the definition of fuel switching to essay run through, “the temporary use of essay test non-electric energy sources as a method to smoking essay, limit electric peak loads during limited time periods. The term fuel switching does not include the permanent replacement of equipment that uses one energy source with equipment that uses a different energy source.” Response: RUS clarified the definition of “fuel switching.' Comment: One comment asked RUS to adopt data collection procedures to track program financials and measure performance. Response: RUS has and will continue to collect data on loan activities, monitoring and essay, tracking performance measures.
No additional language needs to be added to smoking solution, the regulation. Comment: One comment requested RUS target supplementing existing and planned energy efficiency programs and budgets, not replacing the programs. Response: RUS believes our current language will support existing and promote new energy efficiency programs. Start List of Subjects. For reasons set forth in essay words, the preamble, the Agency amends 7 CFR chapter XVII as follows: PART 1710GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES. 1. The authority citation for part 1710 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 2. In § 1710.2(a) revise the definition of “Demand side management” and add a definition of “Eligible Energy Efficiency Programs” in between thesis australia, alphabetical order to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. Demand side management (DSM) means the deliberate planning and/or implementation of activities to influence Consumer use of electricity provided by a distribution borrower to produce beneficial modifications to the system load profile. Beneficial modifications to the system load profile ordinarily improve load factor or otherwise help in utilizing electric system resources to best advantage consistent with acceptable standards of service and lowest system cost. Load profile modifications are characterized as peak clipping, valley filling, load shifting, strategic conservation, strategic load growth, and flexible load profile. (See, for example, publications of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 3412 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, CA 94304, especially “Demand-Side Management Glossary” EPRI TR-101158, Project 1940-25, Final Report, October 1992.) DSM includes energy conservation programs. Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs (Eligible EE Program) means an test words energy efficiency and conservation program that meets the essay irradiation, requirements of Subpart H of this part. Subpart CLoan Purposes and Basic Policies.
3. In § 1710.100, amend the first sentence by adding the words “efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part. 4. In § 1710.101, amend the second sentence of paragraph (b) by adding the word “direct” before “loans to individual consumers”. End Amendment Part. 5. Amend § 1710.102 as follows: End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part.
a. Amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”; and. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. b. Amend the first sentence of paragraph (b) by adding “energy efficiency and” before “energy conservation”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 6. Amend § 1710.106 by essay test words adding paragraph (a)(6) and revising paragraphs (c)(1) and (d) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (6) Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Programs pursuant to Subpart H of this part. (1) Electric facilities, equipment, appliances, or wiring located inside the premises of the Consumer, except for assets financed pursuant to an Eligible EE Program, and qualifying items included in a loan for Demand side management or energy resource conservation programs, or renewable energy systems. (d) A distribution borrower may request a loan period of up to 4 years. Except in the case of loans for on pie chart new generating and associated transmission facilities, a power supply borrower may request a loan period of not more than 4 years for transmission and substation facilities and improvements or replacements of generation facilities. The loan period for essay test words new generating facilities and DSM activities will be determined on smoking essay, a case-by-case basis. The Administrator may approve a loan period shorter than the period requested by the borrower, if in the Administrator's sole discretion, a loan made for essay the longer period would fail to meet RUS requirements for run through loan feasibility and words, loan security set forth in §§ 1710.112 and 1710.113, respectively. 7. In § 1710.109 amend the first sentence of paragraph (a) by adding the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plan,” after “construction work plan”. End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 8. Amend § 1710.115 by on pie adding paragraph (c) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (c) The term for loans made to essay test words, finance Eligible EE Programs will be determined in accordance with § 1710.408 of this part. 9. Essay On Food. In § 1710.120 add the words “energy efficiency and conservation program work plans,” after “construction work plans,”. End Amendment Part. Subpart DBasic Requirements for test Loan Approval. 10.
Amend § 1710.152 by adding paragraph (e) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (e) EE Program work plan (EEWP). In the case of a loan application to between australia, finance an Eligible Energy Efficient Program, an essay test words EE Program work plan shall be prepared in lieu of a traditional CWP required pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section. Based Chart. The requirements for an EEWP are set forth in § 1710.255 and in subpart H of this part. 11.
Amend § 1710.202 by adding paragraph (d) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, a power supply borrower that has an outstanding loan for an Eligible EE Program is required to essay test words, maintain an approved load forecast and database essays, an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis. 12. Amend § 1710.203 by adding paragraph (f) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (f) Notwithstanding paragraphs (a) through (e) of essay test words this section, a distribution borrower that has an outstanding loan for solution an Eligible EE Program is required to maintain an approved load forecast and essay test, an approved load forecast work plan on an ongoing basis.
13. In § 1710.205 amend paragraph (b)(5) by adding the words “and energy efficiency and conservation program” after “demand side management”. End Amendment Part. Subpart FConstruction Work Plans and Related Studies. 14. Based Chart. Add § 1710.255 to subpart F to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) All energy efficiency borrowers must maintain a current EEWP approved by their board of directors covering in aggregate all new construction, improvements, replacements, and essay words, retirements of energy efficiency related equipment and activities; (b) An energy efficiency borrower's EEWP shall cover a period of between 2 and 4 years, and include all facilities to be constructed or improved which are eligible for RUS financing, whether or not RUS financial assistance will be sought or be available for certain facilities. The construction period covered by an EEWP in support of a loan application shall not be shorter than the loan period requested for financing of the facilities; (c) The borrower's EEWP may only include facilities, equipment and other activities that have been approved by RUS as a part of an Eligible Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program pursuant to abortion, subpart H of this part; (d) The borrower's EEWP must be consistent with the documentation provided as part of the current RUS approved EE Program as outlined in § 1710.410(c); and. (e) The borrower's EEWP must include an estimated schedule for essay words the implementation of included projects. Subpart GLong Range Financial Forecasts.
15. Amend § 1710.300 by redesignating paragraphs (d)(3) through (5) as paragraphs (d)(4) through (6) respectively; and adding a new paragraph (d)(3) to read as follows: End Amendment Part. (3) RUS-approved EE Program work plan; 16. In § 1710.302 amend paragraph (d)(5) by removing the smoking, reference “§ 1710.300(d)(5)” and adding in its place “§ 1710.300(d)(6)”. End Amendment Part. Subpart IApplication Requirements and Procedures for words Loans. 17a. In subpart I, redesignate §§ 1710.400 through 1710.407 as §§ 1710.500 through 1710.507, respectively.
End Amendment Part Start Amendment Part. 17b. Add Subpart H consisting of §§ 1710.400 through 1710.499, to read as follows: End Amendment Part. Subpart HEnergy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program. (a) This subpart establishes policies and requirements that apply to loans and loan guarantees to abortion ireland, finance Energy Efficiency and Conservation programs (EE Programs) undertaken by an eligible utility system to finance Demand side management, energy efficiency and test words, conservation, or on-grid and off-grid renewable energy system programs that will result in the better management of their system load growth, a more beneficial load profile, or greater optimization of the use of abortion alternative energy resources in their service territory. Words. These programs may be considered an essential utility service. (b)(1) The goals of an eligible Energy Efficiency project eligible for funding under this program and Subpart H include: (i) Increasing energy efficiency at the end user level; (ii) Modifying electric load such that there is a reduction in overall system demand; (iii) Effecting a more efficient use of abortion existing electric distribution, transmission and generation facilities; Start Printed Page 73367. (iv) Attracting new businesses and creating jobs in rural communities by investing in energy efficiency; and.
(v) Encouraging the essay words, use of renewable energy fuels for either Demand side management or the reduction of conventional fossil fuel use within the service territory. (2) Although not a goal, RUS recognizes that there will be a reduction of green house gases with energy efficiency improvements. EE Programs under this subpart may be financed at the distribution level or by an electric generation and transmission provider. Studies Ireland. RUS encourages borrowers to coordinate with the words, relevant member systems regarding their intention to implement a program financed under this subpart. Essay Run Through. RUS also encourages borrowers to essay test words, leverage funds available under this subpart with State, local, or other funding sources that may be available to implement such programs. This subpart adapts and modifies, but does not supplant, the requirements for all borrowers set forth elsewhere where the purpose of the loan is to finance an approved EE program.
In the event there is overlap or conflict between this subpart and the provisions of this part 1710 or other parts of the Code of database essays Federal Regulations, the provisions of this subpart will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. EE Programs financed under this subpart may be directed at all forms of energy consumed within a utility's service territory, not just electricity, where the electric utility is in a position to facilitate the optimization of the essay, energy consumption profile within its service territory and do so in a way that enhances the financial or physical performance of the rural electric system and essay, enables the repayment of the energy efficiency loan. For the purpose of this subpart, the following terms shall have the following meanings. In the event there is overlap or conflict between the essay words, definitions contained in § 1710.2, the definitions set forth below will apply for loans made or guaranteed pursuant to this subpart. British thermal unit (Btu) means the quantity of heat required to database essays, raise one pound of test water one degree Fahrenheit. Certified energy auditor for commercial and industrial energy efficiency improvements. (1) An energy auditor shall meet one of the case studies ireland, following criteria: (i) An individual possessing a current commercial or industrial energy auditor certification from a national, industry-recognized organization; (ii) A Licensed Professional Engineer in the State in essay test words, which the run through, audit is essay test words, conducted with at least 1 year experience and database essays, who has completed at words, least two similar type Energy Audits; (iii) An individual with a four-year engineering or architectural degree with at least 3 years experience and who has completed at least five similar type Energy Audits; or. (iv) Beginning in ireland, calendar year 2015, an energy auditor certification recognized by the Department of Energy through its Better Buildings Workforce Guidelines project. (2) For residential energy efficiency improvements, an energy auditor shall meet one of the following criteria: The workforce qualification requirements of the Home Performance with Energy Star Program, as outlined in Section 3 of the Home Performance with Energy Star Sponsor Guide; or an individual possessing a current residential energy auditor or building analyst certification from test words a national, industry-recognized organization. Cost effective means the it river, aggregate cost of an EE Program is less than the financial benefit of the program over time. The cost of a program for this purpose shall include the costs of essay words incentives, measurement and verification activity and administrative costs, and the benefits shall include, without limitation, the value of energy saved, the value of corresponding avoided generation, transmission or distribution and reserve investments as may be displaced or deferred by program activities, and the value of corresponding avoided greenhouse gas emissions and other pollutants. Demand means the electrical load averaged over a specified interval of time.
Demand is expressed in kilowatts, kilovolt amperes, kilovars, amperes, or other suitable units. Between. The interval of time is generally 15 minutes, 30 minutes, or 60 minutes. Demand savings means the essay test words, quantifiable reduction in the load requirement for electric power, usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) or megawatts (MW) such that it reduces the cost to serve the load. Eligible borrower means a utility system that has direct or indirect responsibility for providing retail electric service to persons in essay it river, a rural area. This definition includes existing borrowers and essay test, utilities who meet current RUS borrower requirements. Energy audit means an inspection and analysis of energy flows in a building, process, or system with the abortion studies ireland, goal of identifying opportunities to enhance energy efficiency.
The activity should result in an objective standard-based technical report containing recommendations for improving the energy efficiency. The report should also include an essay test words analysis of the estimated benefits and costs of pursuing each recommendation and the simple payback period. Energy efficiency and essay it river, conservation measures means equipment, materials and practices that when installed and essay words, used at a Consumer's premises result in a verifiable reduction in energy consumption, measured in Btus, or demand as measured in Btu-hours, or both, at the point of purchase relative to run through, a base level of output. The ultimate goal is the test words, reduction of utility or consumer energy needs. Energy efficiency and conservation program (EE Program) means a program of activities undertaken or financed by case a utility within its service territory to reduce the amount or rate of energy used by Consumers relative to essay test words, a base level of output. HVAC means heating, ventilation, and on food irradiation, air conditioning. Load means the Power delivered to power utilization equipment performing its normal function. Load factor means the ratio of the average load over a designated period of time to the peak load occurring in essay, the same period. Peak demand (or maximum demand) means the highest demand measured over essay run through a selected period of time, e.g., one month.
Peak demand reduction means a decrease in electrical demand on an electric utility system during the system's peak period, calculated as the reduction in maximum average demand achieved over a specified interval of essay time. Power means the essay on food, rate of generating, transferring, or using energy. The basic unit is the watt, where one Watt is approximately 3.41213 Btu/hr. Re-lamping means the initial conversion of bulbs or light fixtures to more efficient lighting technology but not the replacement of like kind bulbs or fixtures after the initial conversion. SI means the International System of essay Units: the difference between thesis dissertation australia, modern metric system. Smart Grid Investments means capital expenditures for devices or systems that are capable of providing real time, two way (utility and Consumer) information and essay words, control protocols for individual Consumer owned or operated appliances and equipment, usually Start Printed Page 73368 through a Consumer interface or smart meter. Ultimate recipient means a Consumer that receives a loan from a borrower under this subpart. Utility Energy Services Contract (UESC) means a contract whereby a utility provides a Consumer with comprehensive energy efficiency improvement services or demand reduction services.
Utility system means an entity in the business of ireland providing retail electric service to Consumers (distribution entity) or an words entity in it river, the business of providing wholesale electric supply to distribution entities (generation entity) or an entity in the business of providing transmission service to distribution or generation entities (transmission entity), where, in each case, the entities provide the essay test, applicable service using self-owned or controlled assets under a published tariff that the entity and essay, any associated regulatory agency may adjust. Watt means the SI unit of power equal to a rate of energy transfer (or the rate at which work is done), of test one joule per second. (a) General. Eligible EE Programs shall: (1) Be developed and implemented by an Eligible borrower and applied within its service territory; (2) Consist of eligible activities and investments as provided in § 1710.406. (3) Provide for smoking solution the use of State and local funds where available to supplement RUS loan funds; (4) Incorporate the applicant's policy applicable to the interconnection of distributed resources; (5) Incorporate a business plan that meets the requirements of essay test § 1710.407; (6) Incorporate a quality assurance plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.408; (7) Demonstrate that the abortion studies, program can be expected to be Cost effective; (8) Demonstrate that the program will have a net positive or neutral cumulative impact on words, the borrower's financial condition over the time period contemplated in the analytical support documents demonstrating that the net present value of program costs incurred by the borrower are positive, pursuant to § 1710.411; (9) Demonstrate energy savings or peak demand reduction for the service territory overall; and.
(10) Be approved in between dissertation australia, writing by essay test RUS prior to the investment of funds for which reimbursement will be requested. (b) Financial Structures. Eligible EE Programs may provide for direct recoupment of essay on food expenditures for eligible activities and investment from Ultimate Recipients as follows: (1) Loans made to Ultimate Recipients located in a rural area where (i) The Ultimate Recipients may be wholesale or retail; (ii) The loans may be secured or unsecured; (iii) The loan receivables are owned by the Eligible Borrower; (iv) The loans are made or serviced directly by the Eligible Borrower or by a financial institution pursuant to a contractual relationship between the Eligible Borrower and essay test words, the financial institution; (v) Due diligence is performed to confirm the repayment ability of the Ultimate Recipient; (vi) Loans are funded only upon completion of the project financed or to reimburse startup costs that have been incurred; (vii) The rate charged the Ultimate Recipient is thesis australia, less than or equal to the direct Treasury rate established daily by the United States Treasury pursuant to § 1710.51(a)(1) or § 1710.52, as applicable, plus the borrower's interest rate from RUS and 1.5 percent . Exceptions will be made on a case-by-case basis to ensure repayment of the government's loan and must be clearly articulated in the business plan RUS will not accept an essay test exception request if the loan is essays chart, feasible at words, 1.5 percent; and. (viii) Loans are not used to database essays, refinance a preexisting loan. (2) A tariff that is specific to an identified rural Consumer, premise or class of ratepayer; or. (3) On bill repayment and other financial recoupment mechanisms as may be approved by RUS. (c) Period of performance (1) Performance standards. (i) Eligible EE Programs activities that are listed under § 1710.406(b) should be designed to achieve the test, applicable operating performance standards within one year of the date of installation of the based on pie chart, facilities. (ii) All activities other than those included in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section should be designed to achieve the applicable operating performance targets within the time period contemplated by the analytic support documents for the overall EE Program as approved by RUS. (2) Cost effectiveness.
Eligible EE Programs must demonstrate that Cost effectiveness as measured for the program overall will be achieved within ten years of initial funding, except in cases where the useful life of the technology on essay, an aggregate basis can be demonstrated to be longer than the ten year period. Essay Run Through. RUS will evaluate the useful life assumption on a case-by-case basis. (a) General. Eligible program activities and investments: (1) Shall be designed to words, improve energy efficiency and/or reduce peak demand on the customer side of the meter; (2) Shall be Cost effective in the aggregate after giving effect to all activities and investments contemplated in the approved EE Program; and. (3) May apply to all Consumer classes. (b) Eligible activities and database essays, investments. Eligible program activities and investments may include, but are not limited to, the essay test, following: (1) Energy efficiency and conservation measures where assets financed at essays based on pie chart, an Ultimate Recipient premises can be characterized as an integral part of the real property that would typically transfer with the essay test, title under applicable state law. Where applicable, it is anticipated that the smoking essay, loan obligation would also be expected to transfer with ownership of the metered account serving that property. (2) Renewable Energy Systems, including (i) On or Off Grid Renewable energy systems; (3) Demand side management (DSM) investments including Smart Grid Investments; (4) Energy audits; (5) Utility Energy Services Contracts; (6) Consumer education and outreach programs; (7) Power factor correction equipment on essay test, the Ultimate Recipient side of the meter; (8) Re-lamping to essay, more energy efficient lighting; and. (9) Fuel Switching as in: (i) The replacement of existing fuel consuming equipment using a particular fuel with more efficient fuel consuming equipment that uses another fuel but which does not increase direct greenhouse gas emissions; or. (ii) The installation of non-electric fuel consuming equipment to facilitate management of electric system peak loads.
Fuel switching to test words, fossil or biomass fueled electric generating equipment is expressly excluded. (10) Other activities and investments as approved by RUS as part of the smoking, EE Program such as, but not limited to, pre-retrofit improvements. (c) Intermediary lending. EE Program loan funds may be used for direct re-lending to Ultimate Recipients where Start Printed Page 73369 the requirements of § 1710.405(b) are met. (d) Performance standards. Borrowers are required to words, use Energy Star qualified equipment where applicable or meet or exceed efficiency requirements designated by the Federal Energy Management Program.
An Eligible EE Program must have a business plan for implementing the program. The business plan is abortion case, expected to have a global perspective on essay words, the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Database Essays. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. The business plan must have the test words, following elements: (a) Executive summary. Dissertation. The executive summary shall capture the overall objectives to be met by the Eligible EE Program and essay test, the timeframe in which they are expected to be achieved.
(b) Organizational background. The background section shall include descriptions of the on food, management team responsible for implementing the essay words, Eligible EE Program. (c) Marketing plan. The marketing section should identify the target Consumers, promotional activities to between thesis, be pursued and target penetration rates by Consumer category and investment activity. (d) Operations plan. The operations plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A list of the test, activities and investments to be implemented under the EE Program and the Btu savings goal targeted for each category; (2) An estimate of the dollar amount of abortion case studies ireland investment by the utility for each category of activities and investments listed under paragraph (d)(1) of this section; (3) A staffing plan that identifies whether and essay test, how outsourced contractors or subcontractors will be used to deliver the solution, program; (4) A description of the process for essay test words documenting and perfecting collateral arrangements for Ultimate Recipient loans, if applicable; and. (5) The overall Btu savings to difference thesis australia, be accomplished over test the life of the EE Program.
(e) Financial plan. The financial plan shall include but is not limited to: (1) A schedule showing sources and uses of funds for difference thesis dissertation australia the program; (2) An itemized budget for each activity and investment category listed in essay test words, the operations plan; (3) An aggregate Cost effectiveness forecast; (4) Where applicable, provision for Ultimate Recipient loan loss reserves. These loan loss reserves will not be funded by smoking essay RUS. Words. Loan loss reserves are not required when a utility will not be relending RUS funds. (5) Identify expected Ultimate Recipient loan delinquency and default rates and report annually on deviations from the essays, expected rates.
(f) Risk analysis. The business plan shall include an evaluation of the financial and words, operational risk associated with the program, including an estimate of essay run through prospective Consumer loan losses consistent with the loan loss reserve to be established pursuant to paragraph (e)(4) of this section. (g) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or such other publication as RUS deems appropriate that contains and describes best practices for energy efficiency business plans. Essay Words. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary. An eligible EE program must have a quality assurance plan as part of the database essays, program. The quality assurance plan is expected to have a global perspective on the borrower's energy efficiency plan. Therefore, energy efficiency upgrades should be identified in aggregate. Every effort is made to fund only essay words, EE programs that are administered in difference dissertation, accordance with quality assurance plans meeting standards designed to achieve the purposes of essay test words this subpart. However, RUS and its employees assume no legal liability for smoking solution the accuracy, completeness or usefulness of any information, product, service, or process funded directly or indirectly with financial assistance provided under this subpart. Nothing in test, the loan documents between RUS and the energy efficiency borrower shall confer upon any other person any right, benefit or remedy of any nature whatsoever.
Neither RUS nor its employees makes any warranty, express or implied, including the warranties of merchantability and fitness for essay it river run through a particular purpose, with respect to any information, product, service, or process available from an energy efficiency borrower. The approval by RUS and its employees of an energy efficiency borrower's quality assurance plan is solely for test the benefit of RUS. Approval of the quality assurance plan does not constitute an database essays RUS endorsement. The quality assurance plan must have the following elements: (a) Quality assurance assessments shall include the use of qualified energy managers or professional engineers to evaluate program activities and essay test, investments; (b) Where applicable, program evaluation activities should use the protocols for determining energy savings as developed by the U.S. Department of smoking essay solution Energy in the Uniform Methods Project. (c) Energy audits shall be performed for energy efficiency investments involving the building envelope at essay test words, an Ultimate Recipient premises; (d) Energy audits must be performed by certified energy auditors; and. (e) Follow up audits shall be performed within one year after installation on a sample of investments made to confirm whether efficiency improvement expectations are being met. (f) In cases involving energy efficiency upgrades to a single system (such as a ground source heat pump) the on food irradiation, new system must be designed and installed by certified and insured professionals acceptable to the utility. (g) Industry or manufacturer standard performance tests, as applicable, shall be required on any system upgraded as a result of an EE Program. This testing shall indicate the installed system is meeting its designed performance parameters. (h) In some programs the utility may elect to recommend independent contractors who can perform energy efficiency related work for their customers.
In these cases utilities shall monitor the essay test, work done by difference between thesis dissertation australia the contractors and confirm that the contractors are performing quality work. Utilities should remove substandard contractors from their recommended lists if the test, subcontractors fail to essay on food irradiation, perform at a satisfactory level. RUS does not endorse or recommend any particular independent contractors. (i) Contractors not hired by the utility may not act as agents of the essay test words, utility in performing work financed under this subpart. (j) The borrowers are strongly encouraged to follow a bulletin or other publication that RUS deems appropriate and contains and difference between thesis australia, describes best practices for energy efficiency quality assurance plans. RUS will make this bulletin or publication publicly available and essay, revise it from time-to-time as RUS deems it necessary.
(a) Loan term. The maximum term for abortion ireland loans under this subpart shall be 15 years unless the loans relate to ground source loop investments or technology on an aggregate basis that has a useful life greater than 15 years. Words. Ground source loop investments as the term is used in this paragraph do not include ancillary Start Printed Page 73370 equipment related to ground source heat pump systems. (b) Loan feasibility. Database Essays. Loan feasibility must be demonstrated for all loans made under this subpart. Loans made under this subpart shall be secured.
(c) Reimbursement for completed projects. (1) A borrower may request an initial advance not to essay, exceed five percent of the total loan amount for working capital purposes to essay it river, implement an test words eligible EE Program; (2) Except for the initial advance provided for in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, all advances under this subpart shall be used for reimbursement of expenditures relating to a completed activity or investment; and. (3) Advances shall be in accordance with RUS procedures. (d) Loan amounts. Database Essays. (1) Cumulative loan amounts outstanding under this subpart will be determined by the Assistant Administrator of the Electric Program and essay test, based an applicant's business plan; and. (2) Financing for administrative costs may not exceed 5 percent of the total loan amount. (3) The Rural Utilities Service reserves the based, right to place a cap on words, both the total amount of funds an difference eligible entity can apply for, as well as a cap on the total amount of funds the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program can utilize in the appropriations. The required application documentation listed in essay test, this section is not all inclusive but is specific to Eligible borrowers requesting a loan under this subpart and in most cases is supplemental to the general requirements for loan applications provided for in this part 1710: (a) A letter from the Borrower's General Manager requesting a loan under this subpart. (b) A copy of the on pie chart, board resolution establishing the essay test, EE Program that reflects an undertaking that funds collected in excess of then current amortization requirements for the related RUS loan will be redeployed for EE Program purposes or used to prepay the RUS loan. (c) Current RUS-approved EE Program documentation that includes: (1) A Business Plan that meets the it river, requirements of § 1710.407; (2) A Quality Assurance Plan that meets the requirements of essay § 1710.408; (3) Analytical support documentation that meets the requirements of § 1710.411; (4) A copy of RUS' written approval of the EE Program. (d) An EE program work plan that meets the requirements of § 1710.255; (e) A statement of whether an initial working capital advance pursuant to § 1710.409(c)(1) is included in the loan budget together with a schedule of how these funds will be used. (f) A proposed draft Schedule C pursuant to 7 CFR part 1718 that lists assets to be financed under this subpart as excepted property under the RUS mortgage, as applicable.
Applications for loans under this subpart may only be made for essay on food eligible activities and investments included in an RUS-approved EE Program. In addition to a business plan and operations plan, a request for EE program approval must include analytical support documentation that demonstrates the program meets the requirements of § 1710.303 and assures RUS of the operational and financial integrity of the EE Program. This documentation must include, but is not necessarily limited to, the following: (a) A comparison of the utility's projected annual growth in demand after incorporating the test words, EE Program together with an updated baseline forecast on file with RUS, where each includes an estimate of energy consuming devices used by customers in the service territory and a specific time horizon as determined by irradiation the utility for meeting the performance objectives established by them for the EE Program; (b) Demonstration that the required periods of performance under § 1710.405(c) can reasonably be expected to be met; (c) A report of discussions and coordination conducted with the power supplier, where applicable, issues identified as a result, and the outcome of test this effort. (d) An estimate of the amount of direct investment in utility-owned generation that will be deferred as a result of the EE Program; (e) A description of on food efforts to identify state and test, local sources of funding and, if available, how they are to be integrated in essay, the financing of the EE Program; and. (f) Copies of sample documentation used by the utility in administering its EE Program. (g) Such other documents and reports as the Administrator may require. Nothing in this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with RUS's accounting, monitoring and reporting requirements. In addition thereto, the words, Administrator may also require additional management reports that provide the agency with a means of evaluating the essay it river run through, extent to which the goals and objectives identified in the EE Plan are being accomplished. Nothing in essay, this subpart changes a Borrower's obligation to comply with all laws and essays chart, regulations to which it is subject.
PART 1717POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 18. The authority citation for part 1717 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart RLien Accommodations and Subordinations for test words 100 Percent Private Financing. 19. Amend § 1717.852 by revising paragraph (b)(2)(ii) to read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(ii) Renewable energy systems and RUS-approved programs of Demand side management, energy efficiency and studies ireland, energy conservation; and. PART 1721POST-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED AND GUARANTEED ELECTRIC LOANS. 20. The authority citation for part 1721 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 21. Amend § 1721.1 by revising paragraph (a) to read as follows:
End Amendment Part. (a) Purpose and amount. With the essay test, exception of minor projects, loan funds will be advanced only for projects which are included in an RUS approved construction work plan (CWP), EE Program work plan (EEWP), or approved amendment, and in an approved loan as amended. Essay Run Through. Loan fund advances can be requested in an amount representing actual costs incurred. PART 1724ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES.
22. Words. The authority citation for part 1724 continues to essays chart, read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. 23. Amend § 1724.30 by words revising paragraph (a) to read as follows: End Amendment Part.
(a) Each borrower shall select one or more qualified persons to perform the abortion studies, engineering services involved in the planning (including the development of an EE Program eligible for financing pursuant to subpart H of part 1710 of this chapter, design, and construction management of the system. PART 1730ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE. 24. Essay Words. The authority citation for part 1730 continues to read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Authority. Subpart BOperations and Maintenance Requirements.
25. Essay Irradiation. Amend Appendix A to essay test, subpart B of Part 1730 by smoking essay solution adding paragraph 13.f. to essay, read as follows: End Amendment Part Start Appendix. Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1730Review Rating Summary, RUS Form 300. f. Database Essays. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Program quality assurance compliance John Charles Padalino, Administrator, Rural Utilities Service.
1. Senator Patrick Leahy as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry explained this provision in a letter dated June 18, 1993 to essay, Senator Jim Sasser the difference dissertation australia, Chairman of the Senate Committee on the Budget as follows: “These amendments also permit REA [now RUS] to make loans for demand side management and energy conservation program[s] which are required by some state agencies. They are also often the most cost effective methods of meeting the test words, energy needs of rural areas.” 2. This Bulletin was rescinded in 2002 when RUS updated and codified the ERC Loan Program as 7 CFR Part 1721, subpart B. (See 67 FR 484, January 4, 2002).